ADVANCES AND PROSPECTS OF FISH NUTRITION RESEARCH

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ADVANCES AND PROSPECTS OF FISH NUTRITION RESEARCH Prof. Shi-Yen Shiau

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Hosted by: ADVANCES AND PROSPECTS OF FISH NUTRITION RESEARCH Prof. Shi-Yen Shiau

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2 Shi-Yen Shiau Providence University National Taiwan Ocean University Advances and Prospects of Fish Nutrition Research

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3 Starting Developing Building-up 2010 1990 1970 1950 Aquaculture Nutrition Progress

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4 salmonids (1950s) carp (1960s) UK, USA, Japan deficiency symptoms nutrient requirements Starting period (1950 - 1970)

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5 channel catfish (1970s) yellowtail, red seabream (1970s) Kuruma shrimp (1970s) tilapia (1980s) tiger shrimp (1980s) grouper (1990s) countries nutrient requirements digestibility nutrient and health (vitamin C, E) Developing period (1970 - 1990)

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6 new species fish species countries nutrient requirements alternative protein/lipid source nutrient - nutrient interaction nutrient and health- aquatic species - human nutrient bioavailability Building-up period (1990 - )

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7 Support the growth, maintenance, and repair of the body’s tissues. Nutrient requirements

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8 About half global aquaculture production relies on addition food, eg aquafeed . The success of aquaculture industry throughout the world continuous to be intricately linked with the ongoing refinement of feeds based upon iterative needs and new nutrition knowledge.

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9 National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies has published three reports on the nutrition and feeding of aquatic animals. 1977 Nutrient Requirements of Warmwater Fish 1993 Nutrient Requirements of Fish 2011 Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp Nutrient Requirements of Aquatic Animals

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10 NRC (1977) Dr. George Post (Chair) Dr. James W. Andrews Dr. Charles W. Deyoe Dr. Harry K. Dupree Dr. Richard T. Lovell Dr. Robert P. Wilson USA Dr. Takeshi Nose (Japan) International

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NRC (1993) USA International Dr. Richard T. Lovell (Chair) Dr. Konrad Dabrowski Dr. Steven Hughes Dr. Robert P. Wilson Dr. C. Young Cho (Canada) Dr. Colin B. Cowey (UK) Dr. Santosh Lall (Canada) Dr. Takeshi Murai (Japan) 11

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12 2011 NRC Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp Committee Dr. Ronald W. Hardy (Chair) Dr. Delbert M. Gatlin (Co Chair) Dr. Louis R. D'Abramo Dr. D. Allen Davis Dr. John E. Halver USA Dr. Shi-Yen Shiau (Taiwan) Dr. Dominique Bureau (Canada) Dr. Ashild Krogdahl (Norway) Dr. Francoise Medale (France) Dr. Douglas R. Tocher (UK) International

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13 Feb 18, 2009 Seattle, WA

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14 1st Committee Meeting – February 18-20, 2009 (Seattle, WA) 1st Conference Call, March 23, 2009 2nd Conference Call, April 20, 2009 3rd Conference Call, May 22, 2009 2nd CommitteeMeeting September 16-18, 2009 (Woods Hole, MA) 3rd Committee Meeting – March 22-24, 2010 (Washington DC) NRC Committee Meeting & Conference Call 4th Conference Call, June 23, 2009 5th Conference Call, July 23, 2009 6th Conference Call, August 27, 2009 7t h Conference Call, October 23, 2009 8th Conference Call, November 24, 2009 9th Conference Call, December 17, 2009 10th Conference Call, January 19, 2010 11th Conference Call, February 23, 2010 12th Conference Call, April 28, 2010 13th Conference Call, May 21, 2010 14th Conference Call, June 24, 2010 Extra CommitteeMeeting – June 2, 2010

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15 2011 http://dels.nas.edu/banr

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16 Nutrient Requirements of Aquatic Animals NRC (2011) The nutrient requirement values presented in the NRC recommendation were based on the published data in the literature. They are minimum dietary concentrations required to support normal growth or other physiological responses, and they do not include a margin of safety. margin of safety “ ”

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17 “ margin of safety ” Pharmacology LD 50 ED 50 Food science TD 50 100

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18 An acceptable daily intake (ADI) = Species difference (10) x Individual viability (10) Elaine M. Faustman EM and Omenn GS. 2010, Chapter 4, RISK ASSESSMENT. In:. Klaassen CD ed., Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology-The Basic Science of Poisons, 7 th edition, p. 107-228. “ margin of safety ”

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19 “ margin of safety ” Nutritional Science ? What about the dose issue in

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20 A B C Estimation nutrient requirements μ Number of people

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21 μ 68.27% μ+ σ μ-σ 95.45% μ+ 2σ μ- 2σ μ+ 3σ μ- 3σ 99.73%

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22 Recommended Dietary Allowance – RDA μ+ 2σ

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Human Terrestrial animals 1 ~14 100+ Aquatic animals 23

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24 NRC (2011) The nutrient requirement values presented in the NRC recommendation were based on the published data in the literature. They are minimum dietary concentrations required to support normal growth or other physiological responses, and they do not include a margin of safety. Nutrient Requirements of Aquatic Animals http://dels.nas.edu/banr

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Nutrient-nutrient interaction Nutrient bioavailability Nutrient and health 25

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Nutrient Interact with Effects Reference Lipid Protein Sparing Shiau and Huang (1990); Samantaray and Mohanty (1997); Sink et al. (2010) Carbohydrate Protein Sparing Shiau and Peng (1993); Shiau and Lin (2001) Amino acid Amino acid Sparing Han et al. (2013); Nguyen and Davis (2009) macronutrient vs macronutrient 26 Nutrient-nutrient interaction

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Nutrient Interact with Effects Reference Vitamin E Lipid Antioxidant Shiau and Shiau (2001); Mourente et al. (2002); Kiron et al. (2004); Lin and Shiau (2005); Wang et al. (2006); Lim et al. (2009); Atalah et al. (2012) Vitamin A Lipid Antioxidant Fontagne et al. (2006) Niacin Carbohydrate Metabolic need Shiau and Suan (1992) Vitamin B 6 Protein Metabolic need Shiau and Hsieh (1997); Giri et al. (1997) Cholesterol Phospholipid Absorption Gong et al. (2000) Vitamin B 6 Fatty acid Metabolic need Maranesi et al. (2005) P Carbohydrate Metabolic need Liang et al. (2011) micronutrient vs macronutrient 27 Nutrient-nutrient interaction

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Nutrient Interact with Effects Reference Vitamin C Vitamin E Sparing, synergism Chen et al. (2004); Lee and Dabrowski (2004); Yildirim-Aksoy et al. (2008); Lim et al. (2010); Nguyen et al. (2012); Pitaksong et al. (2012) Choline Inositol Sparing Michael and Koshio (2008) Vitamin A Astaxanthin Synergism Christiansen et al. (1994) Vitamin A β -carotene Bioconversion Hu et al. (2006) Vitamin C Folic acid Synergism Duncan and Lovell (1994) vitamin vs vitamin 28 Nutrient-nutrient interaction

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Nutrient Interact with Effects Reference Vitamin C Cu Antagonism Yamamoto et al. (1981); Hsu and Shiau (1999); Lee and Shiau (2003) Vitamin C Fe Absorption Sandnes et al. (1984); Andersen et al. (1998); Hsu and Shiau (1999); Lim et al. (2000); Elbaraasi et al. (2004) Vitamin E Se Sparing, synergism Lin and Shiau (2009) Vitamin B 12 Co bioconversion Lin et al. (2010) vitamin vs mineral 29 Nutrient-nutrient interaction

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Nutrient Interact with Effects Reference Ca P Sparing Penaflorida (1999) Se Cu Antagonism Lin and Shiau (2007) P Mn Antagonism Apines et al. (2003) Se Heavy metal Antagonism Ates et al. ( 2008); Talas et al. (2008) mineral vs mineral 30 Nutrient-nutrient interaction

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31 Nutrient-nutrient interaction Ex # 1 protein vs carbohydrate Ex # 2 carbohydrate vs niacin Ex # 3 vitamin E vs lipid Ex # 4 protein vs vitamin B 6

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Type of fish % Digestible carbohydrate Marine or coldwater   Asian seabass ≤ 20 Atlantic salmon ≤ 20 Plaice ≤ 20 Pacific salmon ≤ 20 Rainbow trout ≤ 20 Yellowtail ≤ 10     Fresh or warmwater   Channel catfish 25-30 Common carp 30-40 Eel 20-30 Grass carp 37-56 Milkfish 35-46 Red drum ~25 Striped bass and hybrid 25-30 Tilapia ~40 32 Wilson, Aquaculture 124: 67-80 (1994) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 1 protein vs CHO

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fish size metabolic factor Cr 2 O 3 Chromium (Cr) meal frequency Complex > simple Tung and Shiau , Aquaculture 92: 343-350, (1991) ; Shiau and Chen, J. Nutr . 123: 1747-1753, (1993) ; Shiau and Lin, Aquaculture 110: 321-330, (1993) 6 times/day > 2 times/day 4.55 g > 0.46 g 33 Carbohydrate utilization of tilapia Tung and Shiau , Aquaculture 92:343-350, (1991) Tung and Shiau , Comp. Biochem . Physiol. 104A: 585-588, (1993) Shiau and Lin, Aquaculture 110: 321-330, (1993) Shiau and Chen, J. Nutr . 123: 1747-1753, (1993) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 1 protein vs CHO carbohydrate source

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Three dietary protein level ( 32, 28, 24% ) were achieved by substitution with three levels ( 33, 37, 41% ) and three sources ( glucose, dextrin , starch ) of dietary carbohydrates fed to tilapia. 34 Shiau and Peng , Aquaculture, 117; 327-334 (1993) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 1 protein vs CHO

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35 This study suggests that starch or dextrin could spare some protein in tilapia diet when the dietary protein is low. Shiau and Peng , Aquaculture 117, 327-334 (1993) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 1 protein vs CHO

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36 Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 2 CHO vs niacin niacin requirement of tilapia fed glucose diet: 26 mg/kg diet dextrin diet: 121 mg/kg diet Shiau and Suen , J. Nutr . 122: 2030-2036 (1992)

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The optimal dietary lipid level for tilapia has been quantified as 12% was needed for maximal growth, and a level of 5% appeared to meet the minimal requirement. Chou and Shiau , Aquaculture 143: 185-195 (1996) 37 Tilapia was categorized by Takeuchi et al. (1991) as the type of fish that required n-6 fatty acids. marine fish type- n-3 HUFA rainbow trout type- n-3 FA such as linolenic and n-3 HUFA carp type- both n-3 and n-6 FA tilapia type- n-6 FA such as linoleic acid Takeuchi et al., Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57: 467-473 (1991) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 3 vitamin E vs lipid

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Chou and Shiau (1999) ; Chou et al. (2001 ) studied qualitatively essential fatty acid requirements of juvenile hybrid tilapia ( O. niloticus x O. aureus ) by feeding different sources of 5% lipid, namely, cod liver oil, lard, and corn oil, each having a different content of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. 38 Chou and Shiau , N. Am. J. Aquacult . 61: 13-20 (1999) Chou et al., N. Am. J. Aquacult . 63: 277-284 (2001) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 3 vitamin E vs lipid

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Growth of hybrid tilapia was significantly improved by feeding cod liver oil compared to corn oil and so, although not quantitatively defined, tilapia also required n-3 fatty acids or at least n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, for maximal growth. NRC 2011 39 Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 3 vitamin E vs lipid

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40 tilapia fed diets with 5% and 12% lipid ( corn oil:cod liver oil = 1:1 → n-3/n-6 ratio 2:3 ) The optimum dietary vitamin E requirement in tilapia are : 42-44 mg E/kg diet in 5% lipid diet 60-66 mg E/kg diet in 12% lipid diet Shiau and Shiau , Animal Science 72: 529-534 (2001) Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 3 vitamin E vs lipid

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30% (Wang et al., 1985 ) 30-35% ( Mazid et al., 1979 ) 40% ( Jauncey , 1982 ) 36 % - optimum protein level 28 % - suboptimum protein level 41 Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 4 protein vs vit B 6 Vitamin B 6 in form of pyridoxal phosphate participates as a prosthetic group of enzymes in a large number of metabolic reaction, particularly those associated with the metabolism of protein or amino acid. Protein requirement for tilapia

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42 Nutrient-nutrient interaction - Ex # 4 protein vs vit B 6 Vitamin B 6 requirements of tilapia 36% protein: 15.0-16.5 mg/kg diet 28% protein: 1.7-9.5 mg/kg diet Shiau and Hsieh, Fisheries Science 63: 1002-1007 (1997)

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43 Nutrient bioavailability Ex # 1 Vitamin A Ex # 2 Vitamin C Ex # 3 Vitamin B 12 Ex # 4 Iron

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44 Nutrient bioavailability - Ex # 1 Vit A Vit A requirements of tilapia: vit A 1.92 mg/kg diet β-carotene 36.5 mg/kg diet The conversion ratio by weight of β-carotene to vitamin A was 19:1 Hu et al., Aquaculture 253;602-607 (2006)

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O O C CH - CH - CH 2 OH OH C OH C OH 1 2 3 4 5 6 L-ascorbic acid AA C2S C2PP L-ascorbyl-2-sulfate L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg C2MP-Na C2MP-Mg 45 Nutrient bioavailability - Ex # 2 Vit C

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Comparative bioavailability of the four ascorbic acid derivatives for P. monodon and grouper > C2PP (81%) > C2MP-Mg (46%) > C2S (32%) C2MP-Na (100) Grouper C2MP-Mg (100) > C2MP-Na (84%) > C2PP (64%) > C2S (25%) P. monodon NRC (2011) 46 Nutrient bioavailability - Ex # 2 Vit C

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47 Nutrient bioavailability - Ex # 3 Vit B 12 Tilapia produces vitamin B 12 in their gastrointestinal tract through bacterial synthesis. Thus, no dietary B 12 is needed for tilapia . Shiau and Lung, Comp. Biochem . Physiol. 105;147-150 (1993)

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48 Nutrient bioavailability - Ex # 4 Iron Species Fe requirement Reference (mg/kg) (f erric citrate ) ( ferrous sulfate ) (ferrous chloride) ( ferrous sulfate ) Eel 170 Nose and Arai, (1975) Red sea bream 150 Sakamoto and Yone, (1978) Channel catfish 30 Gatlin and Wilson, (1986) Atlantic salmon 60-100 Andersen et al., (1996)

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49 Nutrient bioavailability - Ex # 4 Iron Shiau and Su, J. Nutr . 133: 483-488(2003) Ferric citrate was ~50% as effective as ferrous sulfate in meeting the iron requirement for tilapia.

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50 1980s – very few studies, only vitamin C and E 1990s – qualitative studies 2000s – qualitative and quantitative studies Nutrient and health - aquatic species

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species Levels for growth (mg/kg) Levels for immunity Immunity/growth Grouper 45 (Lin and Shiau, 2005a) 288 (Lin and Shiau, 2005a) 6.4 Channel catfish 50 (Andrews and Murai, 1975) 150 (Durve and Lovell, 1982) 3 1000 (Li and Lovell, 1985) 20 Rainbow trout 20 (Sato et al., 1982) 500 (Navarre and Halver, 1989) 25 320 (Anggawati-Satyabudhy et al., 1990) 16 Turbot 20 (Merchie et al., 1996) 1000-2000 (Robert et al., 1995) 50-100 Atlantic salmon 50 (Lall et al., 1990) 2750 (Hardie et al., 1991) 55 4000 (Waagbo et al., 1993) 80 1000 (Verlhac and Gabaudan, 1994 20 Japanese seabass 53 (Ai et al., 2004) 489 (Ai et al., 2004) 9.2 Yellow croaker 28 (Ai et al., 2006) 489 (Ai et al., 2006) 17.5 Japanese eel 32 (Ren et al., 2005) 762 (Ren et al., 2007) 23.8 Indian major carp 53 (Misra et al., 2007) 200 (Nayak et al., 2007) 3.8 Tiger shrimp 40 (Shiau and Hsu, 1994) 200 (Lee and Shiau, 2002a) 5 Vitamin C 51 51 Nutrient and health - aquatic species

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species Levels for growth (mg/kg) Levels for immunity Immunity/ growth Grouper 100 (Lin et al., 2005b) 200-400 (Lin et al., 2005b) 2-4 Atlantic salmon 60 (Hamre and Lie, 1995) 326 (Hardie et al., 1990) 5.4 Rainbow trout 50 (Cowey et al., 1983) 450 (Puangkaew et al., 2004) 9 Indian major carp 130 (Sau et al., 2004) 1000 (Sahoo and Mukherjee, 2002) 7.7 Gilthead seabream 60 (Ortuno et al., 2000) 1200 (Ortuno et al., 2000) 20 Tiger shrimp 85 (Lee and Shiau, 2004) 89 (Lee and Shiau, 2004) 1 Vitamin E 52 Nutrient and health - aquatic species

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nutrients species Levels for growth (mg/kg) Levels for immunity Immunity/growth Vitamin B 1 Jian carp 0.8-1.1 (Feng et al., 2011) 1.02 (Huang et al., 2010) 1 Vitamin B 6 Atlantic salmon 10 (Lall and Weerakoon, 1990) 10 (Albrekten et al., 1995) 1 Folic acid Grouper 0.8 (Lin et al., 2011) 0.8 (Lin et al., 2011) 1 Pantothenate Jian carp 23 (Wen et al., 2009) 42-47 (Wen et al., 2010) 2 Inositol Jian carp 518 (Jiang et al., 2009) 232-687 (Jiang et al., 2010) 1 Cu Tiger shrimp 15-21 (Lee and Shiau, 2002b) 10-30 (Lee and Shiau, 2002b) 1 Fe Channel catfish 30 (Gatlin and Wilson, 1986) 30 (Sealey et al., 1997) 1 Se Grouper 0.7 (Lin and Shiau, 2005c) 1.38-2.02 (Lin and Shiau, 2006) 2-3 Zn Tiger shrimp 32 (Shiau and Jiang, 2006) 35-48 (Shiau and Jiang, 2006) 1 Other vitamins and minerals 53 Nutrient and health - aquatic species

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54 Infectious disease is the major cause of economic loss in intensive aquaculture. Limit the definitions of nutrient requirements to normal development (growth), neglecting the increased nutrient needs attributable to stress and the increased demands of a stimulated immune response. Nutrient and health - aquatic species

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55 Summary (1) More research input on quantifying nutrient requirements of aquatic animals are encouraged. The influence of interaction between nutrients and nutrient bioavailability on the nutrient requirements in aquatic animals needs to be explored. The nutrient requirements of different aquatic species based on different responses including growth, stress tolerance, and disease resistance need to be evaluated.

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56 Summary (2) Consumers expect and deserve safe and nutritious farmed fish and shrimp products. Feed composition has a profound effect on the nutritional value of farmed product to consumers, research on this aspects in terms of nutrient requirements of aquatic species is needed. The application of modern molecular techniques is essential to determine the effects of nutrients at the cell and organelle level when basic metabolic reactions occur.

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57 Thank You ! 57

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