Grammar Book Final

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Pepa Spinnler


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Grammar Book Por: Pepa Spinnler:

Grammar Book Por: Pepa Spinnler

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents 1) Nationalities 10) verbs like gustar 19) Preterite 2) Stem- Changing Verbs 11 ) affirmitive and negative 3) Para 12 ) pero vs. sino 4) Adjectives 13) DOP/IOP/SE 5) Object Pronoun Placement 14) Reflexive Verbs 6) Direct Object Pronouns 15 ) Tu commands affirmative/ negative / irregulars 7) Indirect Object Pronoun 16) los adverbos-mente 8) ser vs. estar 17) Deber + modal 9) -ismo and g/c/s 18) Past Participles as Adjectives


Nationalities Mexicano * Dominicano *Chileno * Italiano Guatemalteco * Puertorriqueno * Argentino * Francés Hondureño * Venezolano * Uruguayo * Inglés Salvoreño * Colombiano * Español * Latino Nicaragúense * Ecuatoriano * Guineano * Hispano Costarricense * Peruano * Canadiense Panameño * Paraguayo * Estadounidense Cubano * Boliviano * Norteamericano

Stem-Changing Verbs:

Stem-Changing Verbs -ar verbs -er verbs o as a amos ais an o es e emos eis en Poder: to be able to dormir: to sleep almorazar: to have lunch contar: to count recordar: to remember costar: to count -Ir Verbs o imos


Para Para is for or in order to El regalo para mi mama uses: for the purpose of/ in order to for the benifit of in the direction of by or for


Adjectivos ends in "e" -> add "s" ends in a constant -> add "es" s p mo -os/es p-a -as

Object Pronoun Placement:

Object Pronoun Placement in affirmative, the dop comes before the verb Yo te quiero in infinitves and past participles the dop can attach to the end of the verb or before the first verb Voy a hacer la / La voy a hacer

Direct Object Pronouns:

Direct Object Pronouns me nos te os lo/la los/las

Indirect Object Pronouns:

Indirect Object Pronouns me nos te os le les io -> verbo verboio + acento Ella le vende la ropa a Elena

ser vs. estar:

ser vs. estar to be ser estar characterisitcs express possesion express origin express profession soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son emotions location physical condition generalizations Time/Date Something is made of where/when an event takes place health ongoing actions certain weather expressions

-ismo and g/c/s:

-ismo and g/c/s c -> qu rico -> riquisimo g -> gu largo -> larguisimo z -> c feliz -> felcisimo

verbs like gustar:

verbs like gustar gusta/gustan molestar: to bother/annoy aburrir: to bore quedar: to be left over encontrar: to love faltar: to lack fascinar: to fascinate importar: to matter interesar: to interest

Affirmative and Negative:

Affirmative and Negative negative nada: nothing nadie: nobody ninguno(a): none nunca: never tampoco: neither neither.. nor

Pero vs Sino:

Pero vs Sino pero : but sino : but Sino is only used if first part of sentence is negative and the second poart contradicts the first. but used if first part of sentence is negative and second parts contradicts the first used otherwise if the second part of the sentence doesn't contradict the first


DOP/IOP/SE DOP me nos te os lo,la los,las IOP me nos te os le les

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs Lola lava los platos. Lola se lava cara me te se nos os se

Tu Affirmative/ Negative/ Irregulars:

Tu Affirmative/ Negative/ Irregulars irregular : Tu affirmative : Tu Negative: di- decir 1) drop the "s" 1 ) put in yo form naz- hacer 2) change to opposite vowel ve- ir/ver ar -> e er/ir -> a pon- poner 3) add "s" sal- salir se- ser ten-tener ven-venir

Los Adverbos -Mente:

Los Adverbos -Mente When an adjective ends in an e, l, or z, simply add -mente to the end. Reciente Reciente mente Cuidadoso Cuidados amente Lento Lent amente Feliz Feliz mente Normal Normal mente Tranquilo Tranquil amente Especial Especial mente

Deber + Modal Verbs:

Deber + Modal Verbs Helping verbs 2nd is not conjugated Desear : to need Poder : to be able to Querer : want Deber + Infinitive (should do something) Poder + Infinitive (able to do something)

Past Participles as Adjectives:

Past Participles as Adjectives agree in gender and number La puerta estan cerrada Las puertas estan cerradas


Preterite ar: -é -amos -aste -ó -aron er/ir: -í -imos -iste -ió -ieron

Works Cited:

Works Cited