Grammar Book Final Roberto

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book By: Roberto Durham

Tabla de Contenidos:

· nouns with irregular genders · adjectives used as nouns · past participle used as an adjective · imperfect vs . preterit · conditional · past perfect · present subjunctive in noun clasues · use of subjunctive after quizás , tal vez , ojalá · use of the infinitive after prepositions · indirect commands · formation of adverbial phrases · comparison · indirect and direct object pronouns used together · possessive · impersonal se · para vs . por Tabla de Contenidos

Past Participles Used As Adjectives:

Past Participles Used As Adjectives The past participles must match the noun they modify in gender and number Verbs ending in – ar , go to –ado Verbs ending in - ir / er go to - ido *All irregulars are ir and er verbs

Preterite vs. Imperfect:

Uses of Preterite On going actions Background information Habits No clear indication of a start and end Preterite vs. Imperfect Uses of Imperfect Completed actions Interruptions Clear start and end Yo : ar é ir / erí Nosotros : ar amos irimos Tú : ar aste ir / eriste Ellos / ellas / uds .: ar aron ir / eríeron Él / ella / ud : ar  ó ir / erió Yo : ar aba ir / ería Nosotros : ar ábamos ir / eríamos Tú : ar  abas ir / er ías Ellos / ellas / uds : ar aban ir / erían Él / ella / ud : ar aba ir / ería

Condicional (woulda/shoulda/coulda):

Condicional ( woulda / shoulda / coulda ) Yo  ía Nosotros  íamos Tú ías El/Ella/ Ud  ía Uds ./ Ellos / Ellas  ían All Endings are the same for er / ir / ar verbs!!!! Keep the infinitive and add the endings Irregulars are the same as the future tense Salir-Saldr Tener-Tendr Poder-Podr Querer-Querr Irregulars Decir-Dir Hacer -Har Poner-Pondr Venir-Vendr Saber- Sabr Haber- Habr

Past Perfect:

The Past Perfect is when a sentence is formed using the auxiliary verb “had” and a past participle. The verb used in S panish is haber Past Perfect Por ejemplo : To say: I had cleaned the bathroom It would be: * He limpiado el baño . Imperfect form of Haber Yo-Había Nosotros-Habíamos Tú-Habías El/ ella / ud-había Ellos / Ellas-Habían * The conjugated haber and the participle are married and nothing will go in-between them

Subjuntive:

Use when there are 2 clauses With “ verbos especiales ” With different subjects With “ que ” Subjuntive Triggers: Es importante que Es malo que Es necessario que Es bien que Es urgente que Es bueno que Es mejor que Es triste que Ojalá que

Subjunctive: Doubt and disbelief and denial:

Phrases that need to be “ subjunctified ” :D Dudar Negar ( e:ie ) Es imposible Es improbable No es cierto No es seguro No es verdad * quizás * tal vez Subjunctive: Doubt and disbelief and denial

Subjunctive with Adjective clauses:

Subjunctive with Adjective clauses If one was to say that they needed or desired an object that may or may not exist they would use the subjunctive. For example: “ Yo necesito un perro que tenga pelo blanco .” This “dog with white fur” could be any dog but if I said “ Yo necesito el perro que tiene pelo blanco .” Then I am implying that you know the one specific dog I am talking about and that no willy nilly dog will do so it would be indicative and the first example would be subjunctive

PowerPoint Presentation:

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Long form Short Form Mio(a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Vuestro (a) Supo (a) Suyo (a) Mi (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Tu (s) Vuestro (a/ os /as) Su(s) Su(s)

Ud./Uds. Command :

Yo ending – “o” and opposite ending Ar e and en Ir er  a and an Affirmative commands can have OP and DO attached and if syllables change, put an accent on third from last. (If you add two syllables it is 4 th from last) *negative has no accents besides exceptions *OP and DO go before command in negative Ud ./ Uds . Command

Tú Commands:

Tú Commands Affirmative Keep it in the 2 nd person present form Drop the “s” Negative Put the verb in the first person singular form. Drop the “o” Add the opposite vowel plus “s” Er / ir as Ares Irregular Affirmative t ener -ten venir - ven decir - di ir - ve s alir - sal s er - sé h acer - haz p oner - p on

Nosotros Commands:

Nosotros Commands Affirmative Put the verb in the present first person plural subjunctive Negative Put the verb in the present first person plural subjunctive Add “no” before the verb Exceptions: Irse goes to Vamos in the affirmative and no vayamos in the negative Pronouns Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos Escribamos + se + la = Escribámosela Pronouns go before the verb and behind “no” No se la escribamos

Por y Para:

Both mean “for” but are not interchangeable Specific time  De instead of para Morning, Night, afternoon  por Por y Para Through is  por For (in place of)  por Throughout (around)  por Toward  para For (his father’s)  para For (the …)  para

Future Tense (Will):

Easiest T ense Ever: Keep the infinitive and add the endings Future Tense (Will) Yo  é Nosotros  emos Tú ás El/Ella/ Ud  á Uds ./ Ellos / Ellas  án Salir-Saldr Tener-Tendr Poder-Podr Querer-Querr Irregulars Decir-Dir Hacer -Har Poner-Pondr Venir-Vendr Saber- Sabr Haber- Habr All Endings are the same for er / ir / ar verbs!!!!