Grammar Book First Nine Weeks

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book By: Roberto Durham

Tabla de Contenidos:

· nouns with irregular genders · adjectives used as nouns · past participle used as an adjective · imperfect vs . preterit · conditional · past perfect · present subjunctive in noun clasues · use of subjunctive after quizás , tal vez , ojalá · use of the infinitive after prepositions · indirect commands · formation of adverbial phrases · comparison · indirect and direct object pronouns used together · possessive · impersonal se · para vs . por Tabla de Contenidos

Ud./Uds. Command :

Yo ending – “o” and opposite ending Ar e and en Ir er  a and an Affirmative commands can have OP and DO attached and if syllables change it accent on third from last. (If you add two syllables it is 4 th from last) *negative has no accents besides exceptions Ud ./ Uds . Command

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Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Long form Short Form Mio(a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Vuestro (a) Supo (a) Suyo (a) Mi (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Tu (s) Vuestro (a/ os /as) Su(s) Su(s)

Subjuntive:

Use when there are 2 clauses With “ verbos especiales ” With different subjects With “ que ” Subjuntive Triggers: Es importante que Es malo que Es necessario que Es bien que Es urgente que Es bueno que Es mejor que Es triste que Ojalá que

Subjunctive: Doubt and disbelief and denial:

Phrases that need to be “ subjunctified ” :D Dudar Negar ( e:ie ) Es imposible Es improbable No es cierto No es seguro No es verdad * quizás * tal vez Subjunctive: Doubt and disbelief and denial

Preterite vs. Imperfect:

Uses of Preterite On going actions Background information Habits No clear indication of a start and end Preterite vs. Imperfect Uses of Imperfect Completed actions Interruptions Clear start and end Yo : ar é ir / erí Nosotros : ar amos irimos Tú : ar aste ir / eriste Ellos / ellas / uds .: ar aron ir / eríeron Él / ella / ud : ar  ó ir / erió Yo : ar aba ir / ería Nosotros : ar ábamos ir / eríamos Tú : ar  abas ir / er ías Ellos / ellas / uds : ar aban ir / erían Él / ella / ud : ar aba ir / ería

Por y Para:

Both mean “for” but are not interchangeable Specific time  De instead of para Morning, Night, afternoon  por Por y Para Through is  por For (in place of)  por Throughout (around)  por Toward  para For (his father’s)  para For (the …)  para