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Ratheesh Kumar R Scientist, Mumbai RC of CMFRI :

Ratheesh Kumar R Scientist, Mumbai RC of CMFRI Probiotics in Aquaculture

Introduction :

Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food producing sector. This rapid growth has generated problems of environmental pollution, which lead to disease out break. So far conventional approaches as disinfectants & antimicrobial drugs has little effect in controlling disease. WHO has advocated reduction in the excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

Introduction :

Introduction All this indicates that the emphasis of disease management should be prevention. One of the most widely accepted alternative for use of antimicrobials in disease control is the use of probiotics. (Gomez etal 2000). FAO now designated use of probiotics as a major means for improvement of aquatic environmental conditions.

Probiotics history / the concept:

Probiotics history / the concept Term probiotics, From the Greek word “ probios ” Pro = “for” Bios = “life”. The idea that bact : culture could benefit human health comes from Russian scientist EliMetchnikoff .(1908) Modern concept of probiotics is given by parker in 1974 (probiotics are organisms or substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance.

Definition of probiotics:

Definition of probiotics Def :- “ A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal balance”(Fuller-1987) . A positive effect by application of certain beneficial bacteria in human, pig ,cattle ,& poultry nutrition has been well established and documented (Gilliland 1979,conway 1989, Jong 1993)

Modified definition for Aquaculture :

Modified definition for Aquaculture In aquaculture not only the digestive tract of animal, but also the surrounding water where it being cultured is also important . Verschure etal (2000) have defined aquaculture probiotics as Def:-“A live microbial adjunct which has a beneficial effect on the host by modifying the host-associated or ambient microbial community, by insuring improved use of feed or by enhancing its nutrition, by enhancing the host response towards disease, or by improving quality of the ambient environment”

Uses of microbial adjuncts::

Uses of microbial adjuncts : 1) Preventing proliferation of pathogens in gut or elsewhere; 2) Improved digestibility; 3) Deliver improved nutrition to aquatics; 4) Enhancing host response to disease (acquired); 5) Improved environmental quality


TYPES OF PROBIOTICS 1.Feed probiotics /nutritional probiotics Probiotics administered in the form of capsule, paste, powder or granules. Bio encapsulation is possible eg : rotifer enriched with probiotics Added at 10-20 gm/kg of feed. 2.water probiotics /environmental probiotics Added directly into the medium Bacterial growth and biomass are controlled by the rate at which larger compounds converted into simple units Added at 0.1-0.25 mg/l.


CRITERIA FOR PROBIOTICS Non-toxic (GRAS) Fast multiplication Biodegradable carrier Not genetically modified Resistance to gastric juice Not close relative of pathogens Able to attach and colonise in GIT Contains proprietary growth stimulants Having enzymes to start waste digestion It should be cheap ,efficient & easily available Able to influence metabolic activity (↑feed convertion ) Remain stable and viable in any storage conditions.

Potential benefits of probiotics:

Potential benefits of probiotics Reducing inflammation Prevention of colon cancer Improving mineral absorption Increase food digestion by their enzyme Prevents harmful bacterial growth under stress Improve water quality or reduce water pollution Increase tolerance to stress during transportation Improve FCR, increase size at harvest and production Neutralization of bacterial toxins by their metabolites Improving immune function and preventing infections Derivation of immune stimulants like peptidoglycans , muramyl di peptides , glucans and lipopolysacharides .

Probiotic benefits vs Antibiotics:

Probiotic benefits vs Antibiotics Probiotics create no illegal residue Probiotics helps to digest pollutants Cheaper to use probiotics than antibiotic Antibiotics lead to slow growth rate of larvae Probiotics promote high survival rate, so are cost efficient to use Bacteria cannot develop resistance to probiotics but can to antibiotics


MODE OF ACTION OF PROBIOTICS Production of inhibitory compounds. (bactericidal / bacteriostatic) Competition for chemicals/available energy. (principle of competition to natural situation) Competition for adhesion sites . (exclusion, limits colonization) Enhancement of the immune response (bacterial compounds act as immunostimulents ) Improvement of water quality. (converts organic matter back to co 2 ) Interaction with phytoplankton. (bacteria have a significant algicidal effect on many sps ) Enzymatic contribution to digestion

Mainly used Probiotics for aquaculture:

Mainly used Probiotics for aquaculture Gram Positive Bacteria : Bacillus and Lactobacillus Gram negative Bacteria : Pseudomonas , Vibrio & Aeromonas Yeast : Saccharomycetes -(vibriosis in penaed ) , debariomysis (survival of sea bass)

Commercially available probiotics:

Commercially available probiotics Aqualact Probe-La Lacto- sacc Epicin Biogreen Environ Wunopuo-15 Epizyme Spilac AQUACLEAN-water probiotics GEO CURE –soil probiotic PROBIODIET-feed probiotics

Probiotic composition:

Probiotic composition Single strain of live microorganism (usually bacteria or yeast) Microbial ecosystems (mixture of specially selected ,live but dormant microorganism – synergistic mix )


METHOD OF APPLICATION OF PROBIOTICS: Addition to artificial diet Addition to live food Addition to culture water Bathing in bacterial suspension

Probiotics success factors:

Probiotics success factors Type of strain Mode of supplementation Existing environmental conditions Usage of proper dosage & treatment frequency (duration of feeding) Salinity:<40ppt Pond pH – tolerant but best at 6-10 Temperature: low performance at low temperatures  


Conclusion Economic benefits of probiotics are multidimensional. Our focus : response towards disease and improvement of the ambient environment. Probiotics can help in sustaining the ecofriendly aquaculture.


Thank you