Screening of different genotypes of okra against Leaf hopper

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1960 Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2018 65: 1960-1963 E-ISSN: 2320-7078 P-ISSN: 2349-6800 JEZS 2018 65: 1960-1963 © 2018 JEZS Received: 02-07-2018 Accepted: 03-08-2018 Ranjit V Kadu Senior Research Assistant Seed Technology Research Unit Seed Cell Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri Tal. Rahuri Dist. Ahmednagar Maharashtra India Santosh R Kulkarni Department of Agricultural Entomology Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri Maharashtra India Pankaj V Patil Department of Agricultural Entomology Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri Maharashtra India Sanjay K Patil Department of Agricultural Entomology Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri Maharashtra India Correspondence Ranjit V Kadu Senior Research Assistant Seed Technology Research Unit Seed Cell Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri Tal. Rahuri Dist. Ahmednagar Maharashtra India Screening of different genotypes of okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench against leafhopper Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida Ranjit V Kadu Santosh R Kulkarni Pankaj V Patil and Sanjay K Patil Abstract Studies on susceptibility of different genotypes of okra to leafhopper Amrasca biguttula biguttula were undertaken at Research Field of Post Graduate Institute Department of Agricultural Entomology Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri during Kharif 2016 and 2017. Twenty okra genotypes were screened against leafhopper. None of the genotypes was found completely free from the infestation of leafhopper although they differed significantly in their degree of damage and pest number to harbour. The genotypes OK-7 OK-9 and Arka Anamika were categorized as resistant and recorded least population of the pest. The genotypes Narendra IC-128889 GM-5 EC-133336 Arka Abhay IC-43733 and IC-69242 were moderately resistant genotypes IC-90168 VRO-22 IC-45805 IC-282229 IC-45800 and EC-169378 as moderately susceptible whereas the genotypes IC-282268 IC-282292 IC-282288 and IC-140906 showed maximum population and categorized as susceptible to leafhopper. Keywords: Okra genotypes leafhopper Kharif Introduction Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench known in many English-speaking countries as lady’s finger bhindi in India is a commercial vegetable crop belongs to family Malvaceae. It is one of the largely cultivated vegetables in the country due to its nutritional industrial and medicinal values 1 . It originates from Ethopia and is widely spread all over tropical sub tropical and warm temperate regions of the World 2 . It plays an important role in human diet and is a good source of vitamin A B and C and also rich in protein minerals and iodine 3 . Among many factors responsible for low production in okra incidence of insect pests is one of the prime factors. As high as 72 species of insects have been recorded on okra 4 of which besides shoot and fruit borer Earias spp. among the sucking pest complex leafhopper Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida is a major concern and cause havoc damage. Leafhopper is a pestiferous insect that sucks the cell sap and inject toxic saliva into leaves resulting in yield loss 5 . The nymphs and adults suck the plant sap mainly from the lower surface of leaves and cause phytotoxic symptoms known as hopper burn which results in complete dessication and has become one of the limiting factors in economic productivity of the crop. Leafhopper alone had caused 59.79 per cent losses in okra fruit yield 6 . Insecticides are mostly used by the vegetable growers as it results in immediate relief to crop and apparently benefit the farmers. For the same reason the use of chemical is increasing rapidly and at the same time the indiscriminate use of insecticides created problems of insecticide resistance pest resurgence adversely affect the non target organisms environmental pollution and also leads to an undesirable load of pesticide residues in saleable vegetables 7 . The use of chemicals will continue in days to come until some reliable alternative control measures are developed. Today’s era is an era of IPM where integration of all the control measures is likely to be done whereas insect resistant plant offer ideal prevention against insect damage involve minimum cost of production and are ecofriendly. Thus in vegetable crops there is huge scope to evolve pest resistant variety. Host plant resistance is an economical effective and environment friendly tactic to manage insect pests. So looking to the economic importance of leafhopper A. biguttula biguttula on okra crop the present study was conducted to explore the reaction of different okra genotypes against leafhopper and it’s incidence on different varieties to find out such a variety that can be regarded as a resistant variety to these pests.

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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 1961 Material and methods Field experiment with twenty genotypes was laid out in a Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice with plot size of 3.0 x 2.7 m each at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops Department of Horticulture MPKV Rahuri during Kharif 2016 and at Research Field of Post Graduate Institute Department of Agricultural Entomology MPKV Rahuri during Kharif 2017. Seeds of twenty different genotypes of okra viz. OK-9 Narendra IC-90168 IC- 282268 IC-128889 GM-5 IC-282292 Arka Anamika EC- 133336 Arka Abhay IC-43733 OK-7 VRO-22 IC-69242 IC-45805 IC282229 IC-282288 IC-45800 IC-140906 and EC-169378 were sown at 30 cm x 15 cm spacing in both the seasons. All the recommended package of practices were adopted for raising the crop. The plots were kept unsprayed through the experimental period. Observations on nymphs and adults of leafhopper A. biguttula biguttula were recorded at weekly interval during morning hours on five plants. The plants were selected randomly and tagged in each plot to record the population of leafhopper both nymph and adult from three leaves each one from top middle and bottom canopies with the help of 10X hand lens and mean population per three leaves was worked out. The observations on insect pests were recorded at weekly interval right from their appearance to last picking of fruits of the crop. Mean leafhopper population per three leaves was calculated and subjected to suitable statistical analysis and categorized under the grades based on the scale adopted by Nagar et al. 2017 8 . For the purpose mean value of individual genotypes Xi was compared with mean value of infestation of all genotypes X and standard deviation sd following the modified scale Resistant : Xi X – sd for resistant Xi X – sd X for moderately resistant Xi X X + sd for moderately susceptible and Xi X + sd X + 2 sd for susceptible. The retransformed data were used for computation of X Xi and sd for each parameter. Results and discussion The present study was designed to screen twenty different okra genotypes against leafhopper A. biguttula biguttula under field conditions of Rahuri. Data regarding per three Table 1: Average population of leafhopper on different genotypes of okra during Kharif 2016 and Kharif 2017 Pooled Sr. No. Genotypes Average mean population of leafhopper/3 leaves Pooled Mean Grades Kharif 2016 Kharif 2017 1 OK-9 4.13 2.15 4.07 2.13 4.10 2.14 R 2 Narendra 7.20 2.78 6.80 2.70 7.00 2.74 MR 3 IC-90168 10.00 3.24 10.07 3.25 10.04 3.25 MS 4 IC-282268 13.00 3.68 13.07 3.68 13.03 3.68 S 5 IC-128889 7.27 2.79 7.13 2.76 7.20 2.78 MR 6 GM-5 7.33 2.79 7.67 2.85 7.50 2.82 MR 7 IC-282292 13.47 3.73 13.67 3.76 13.57 3.74 S 8 Arka Anamika 5.07 2.36 4.63 2.26 4.85 2.31 R 9 EC-133336 8.07 2.93 7.93 2.90 8.00 2.92 MR 10 Arka Abhay 8.80 3.04 8.53 3.00 8.66 3.02 MR 11 IC-43733 8.87 3.06 9.20 3.11 9.03 3.09 MR 12 OK-7 3.93 2.11 3.67 2.04 3.80 2.07 R 13 VRO-22 10.40 3.30 10.27 3.28 10.33 3.29 MS 14 IC-69242 9.47 3.15 9.73 3.19 9.60 3.17 MR 15 IC-45805 10.73 3.35 11.00 3.39 10.87 3.37 MS 16 IC-282229 11.80 3.51 11.47 3.46 11.63 3.48 MS 17 IC-282288 13.80 3.79 14.00 3.81 13.90 3.80 S 18 IC-45800 12.13 3.56 12.47 3.60 12.30 3.58 MS 19 IC-140906 13.93 3.79 14.13 3.82 14.03 3.81 S 20 EC-169378 12.80 3.65 12.80 3.64 12.80 3.65 MS SE 0.08 0.10 0.09 - CD 5 0.22 0.28 0.24 - Figure in the parentheses are square root of x + 0.5 transformation Leaves population of leafhopper on okra was recorded with weekly interval from randomly selected five plants per plot. The data presented in Table 1 indicates the average population of leafhopper per three leaves during Kharif 2016 and 2017 on twenty different genotypes of okra and data obtained is analyzed statistically and pooled data is described as under: The overall pooled data of average population of leafhopper during Kharif 2016 and 2017 is presented in Table 1 revealed that average mean population of leafhopper during the crop growth ranged from 3.80 to 14.03 leafhoppers/3 leaves. The genotype OK-7 was the most promising and recorded average population of 3.80 leafhoppers/3 leaves and was significantly superior over remaining okra germplasm except OK-9 4.10 leafhoppers/3 leaves and Arka Anamika 4.85 leafhoppers/3 leaves which were at par with OK-7. The maximum mean population of 14.03 leafhoppers/3 leaves was observed on the genotype IC-140906 followed by IC-282288 13.90 leafhoppers/3 leaves IC-282292 13.57 leafhoppers/3 leaves and IC-282268 13.03 leafhoppers/3 leaves. These present findings are in line with the earlier workers Hooda et al 1999 9 who identified two resistant and nine moderately resistant okra cultivars and stated that resistant genotypes had significantly few nymphs as compared to other varieties. Similarly Ghosh et al. 1999 10 found that okra variety Arka Anamika was moderately resistant against leafhopper. As per the reports of Srinivasa and Sugeetha 2001 11 no okra cultivar was completely free from leafhopper infestation. According to Tripathy et al. 2008 12 okra variety Arka Anamika was resistant against leafhopper and recorded mean population of 5.02 leafhoppers/3 leaves. Similar results have been quoted by Anita and Nandihalli

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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 1962 2009 13 Saif et al. 2012 14 Vatsal Srivastava and Parasnath 2011 15 Patel et al. 2012 16 Nataraja et al. 2013 17 Javed et al. 2016 18 Sultana et al. 2017 19 Nagar et al. 2017 8 . Fig 1: Average population of leafhopper on different okra genotypes during Kharif 2016 and 2017 Categorization of okra genotypes for their resistance or susceptibility to leafhopper A. biguttula biguttula To determine the relative susceptibility/resistance against leafhopper infestation the okra germplasm were categorized based on the population count of leafhoppers/3 leaves on randomly selected five plants Table 2. The genotypes viz. OK-7 OK-9 and Arka Anamika had lowest leafhopper population below 6.39 leafhoppers/3 leaves and were graded under resistant category. The genotypes Narendra IC-128889 GM-5 EC-133336 Arka Abhay IC-43733 and IC-69242 had leafhopper population varying from 6.39 to 9.61 leafhoppers/3 leaves and were categorized as moderately resistant genotypes. The population of leafhopper on the genotypes IC-60168 VRO-22 IC-45805 IC-282229 IC- 45800 and EC-169378 ranged from 9.61 to 12.83 and were categorized as moderately susceptible genotypes. IC-282268 IC-282292 IC-282288 and IC-140906 recorded the leafhopper population above 12.83 leafhoppers/3 leaves and were graded under the susceptible category. These categorization is done as per the scale adopted by Nagar et al. 2017 in which mean value of individual genotypes Xi was compared with mean value of infestation of all genotypes X and standard deviation sd following the modified scale. The retransformed data were used for computation of X Xi and sd for each parameter. Table 2: Categorization of okra genotypes for resistance or susceptibility to leafhopper Based on population of leafhopper/plant : X 9.61 sd 3.22 Category of resistant Scale Genotypes Resistant Xi 6.39 OK-7 3.80 OK-9 4.10 Arka Anamika 4.85 Moderately resistant Xi 6.39 9.61 Narendra 7.00 IC-128889 7.20 GM-5 7.50 EC-133336 8.00 Arka Abhay 8.66 IC-43733 9.03 IC-69242 9.60 Moderately susceptible Xi 9.61 12.83 IC-90168 10.04 VRO-22 10.33 IC-45805 10.87 IC-282229 11.63 IC-45800 12.30 EC-169378 12.80 Susceptible Xi 12.83 IC-282268 13.03 IC-282292 13.57 IC-282288 13.90 IC-140906 14.03 Where Xi Mean value of individual genotype X Mean value of infestation of all genotypes Sd Standard deviation

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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 1963 Conclusion From the present study it may be concluded that the okra genotypes OK-7 OK-9 and Arka Anamika recorded the lowest population of leafhopper during the period of crop growth. This genotypes are identified as a source of resistance against leafhopper and could be used in breeding programme and development of IPM strategies. Acknowledgement The research findings are the part of the research work of Ph.D. programme of the first author submitted to the Department of Agricultural Entomology Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri District-Ahmednagar Maharashtra India. References 1. Chauhan DVS. Vegetable Production in India. 3rd edn. Ramprasad and Sons. Agra. 1972 275-333. 2. Singh P Chauhan V Tiwari BK Chauhan SS Simon S Bilal S Abidi AB. An overview on okra Abelmoschus esculentus and it’s importance as a nutritive vegetable in the World. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2014 42:227-233. 3. Baloch AF Qayyum SM Baloch MA. Growth and yield performance of okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. cultivars. Gomal University Journal of Research.1990 10:191. 4. Srinivasa R Rajendran R. Joint action potential of neem with other plant extracts against the leaf hopper Amrasca devastance Distant on Okra. Pest Management and Economic Zoology. 2003 10:131-136. 5. Singh S Choudhary DP Sharma HC Mahla RS Mathur YS Ahuja DB. Effect of insecticidal molecules against jassid and shoot and fruit borer in okra. Indian Journal of Entomology. 2008 70:197-199. 6. Atwal AS Singh B. Pest population and assessment of crop losses. ICAR Publication Indian council of Agricultural Research New Delhi. 1990 265. 7. Kumari A Madan VK Kumar R Kathpal TS. Monitoring of seasonal vegetables for pesticide residues. Environment Monitoring Assessment. 2002 74:263-270. 8. Nagar J Khinchi SK Kumawat KC Sharma A. Screening different varieties of okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench against sucking insect pests. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2017 63:30-34. 9. Hooda VS Dhankhar BS Dahiya BS Singh R. Inheritance of resistance to leafhopper Amrasca biguttula biguttula on okra. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1999 561:73-76. 10. Ghosh JSK Chatterjee H Senapati SK. Pest constraints of okra under Terai region of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Entomology. 1999 614:362-371. 11. Srinivasa H Sugeetha G. Field screening of certain okra varieties for resistance against major pests. Insect Environment. 2001 72:74-76. 12. Tripathy P Maity TK Patnaik HP. Field screening of open pollinated okra varieties against major pests in response to reduced level of chemical fertilizers and organic manures. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 2008 51:38-44. 13. Anitha KR Nandihalli BS. Evaluation of some okra hybrids against leafhopper and aphid. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2009 223:718-719. 14. Saif U Javed H Asif AM. Role of Physico-Morphic characters of different okra genotypes in relation to population of jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida. Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012 502:217. 15. Vatsala S Paras N. Screening of okra varieties against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. 2011 34:15-18. 16. Patel KB Patel MB Patel KM. Reaction of various okra cultivars to important sucking pests. An International e- Journal. 2012 13:314-320. 17. Nataraja MV Chalam MSV Madhumathi T Srinivas RV. Screening of okra genotypes against sucking pests and yellow vein mosaic virus disease under field conditions. Indian Journal Plant Protection. 2013 413:226-230. 18. Javed K Rashid MA Munawar A Hussain K Javed H. Varietal and physio-morphic resistance of okra cultivars against Amrasca biguttula biguttula Homoptera : Cicadellidae. Journal of Entomology and Zoological Studies. 2016 45:313-317. 19. Sultana MN Uddin MM Ahmad M Adnan SM. Varietal preference of okra jassid Amrasca devastans Dist. under field condition of Bangladesh. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2017 152:227- 233.

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