IVMS-Cell Bio-HUMAN CELLS AND TISSUES

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HUMAN CELLS AND TISSUES : 

IVMS©1999-2009 HUMAN CELLS AND TISSUES Epithelial Tissue | Connective Tissue | Muscle Tissue | Nervous Tissue 1 Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. BMS Professor Tissue (biology)

Epithelial tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Epithelial tissue Covers body surfaces and lines body cavities Functions include lining, protecting, and forming glands Three types of epithelium occur: Squamous epithelium is flattened cells. Cuboidal epithelium is cube-shaped cells. Columnar epithelium consists of elongated cells. 2

Epithelial tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Epithelial tissue Any epithelium can be simple or stratified Simple epithelium has only a single cell layer Stratified epithelium has more than one layer of cells Pseudostratified epithelium is a single layer of cells so shaped that they appear at first glance to form two layers 3

Note the single layer of simple cuboidal epithelium lining either side of a tubule. : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Note the single layer of simple cuboidal epithelium lining either side of a tubule. 4

Slide 5: 

IVMS©1999-2009 5

one of the columnar epithelium cells outlined : 

IVMS©1999-2009 one of the columnar epithelium cells outlined 6

Slide 7: 

IVMS©1999-2009 Functions of epithelial cells include: movement materials in, out, or around the body. protection of the internal environment against the external environment. Secretion of a product 7

Slide 8: 

IVMS©1999-2009 Glands can be single epithelial cells, such as the goblet cells that line the intestine Multicellular glands include the endocrine glands 8

Connective Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Connective Tissue Connective tissue serves many purposes in the body: binding supporting protecting forming blood storing fats filling space 9

Connective Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Connective Tissue 10

Structure and vascularization of bone : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Structure and vascularization of bone 11

Connective Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Connective Tissue Blood is a connective tissue of cells separated by a liquid (plasma) matrix. Three types of cells occur Red blood cells (erythrocytes) carry oxygen. White blood cells (leukocytes) function in the immune system.. Platelets are cell fragments that function in blood clotting. Plasma transports dissolved glucose, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones, as well as regulating the water balance for the blood cells 12

IVMS©1999-2009 Red blood cells and the single neutrophil Erythrocytes as seem with the SEM 13

Human Red Blood Cells, Platelets and T-lymphocyte (erythrocytes = red; platelets = yellow; T-lymphocyte = light green) (SEM x 9,900 : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Human Red Blood Cells, Platelets and T-lymphocyte (erythrocytes = red; platelets = yellow; T-lymphocyte = light green) (SEM x 9,900 14

Muscle Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Muscle Tissue Muscle tissue facilitates movement of the animal by contraction of individual muscle cells (referred to as muscle fibers). Three types of muscle fibers occur in animals skeletal (striated) smooth Cardiac (striated) 15

striated muscle fibers : 

IVMS©1999-2009 striated muscle fibers 16

Muscle Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Muscle Tissue Skeletal (striated) muscle fibers have alternating bands perpendicular to the long axis of the cell These cells function in conjunction with the skeletal system for voluntary muscle movements The bands are areas of actin and myosin deposition in the cells 17

Muscle Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Muscle Tissue Smooth muscle fibers lack the banding, although actin and myosin still occur. These cells function in involuntary movements and/or autonomic responses (such as breathing, secretion, ejaculation, birth, and certain reflexes). Smooth muscle fibers are spindle shaped cells that form masses. These fibers are components of structures in the digestive system, reproductive tract, and blood vessels 18

smooth muscle cellscardiac muscle cells : 

IVMS©1999-2009 smooth muscle cellscardiac muscle cells 19

Heart Muscle Cell (nucleus, mitochondria, actin-myosin) (TEM x15,400). : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Heart Muscle Cell (nucleus, mitochondria, actin-myosin) (TEM x15,400). 20

Nervous Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue functions in the integration of stimulus and control of response to that stimulus Nerve cells are called neurons Each neuron has a cell body, an axon and many dendrites Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons transmit nerve messages. Glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them. 21

Nervous Tissue : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Nervous Tissue The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Humans have about 100 billion neurons in their brain alone! While variable in size and shape, all neurons have three parts Dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body The cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells The axon conducts messages away from the cell body 22

Pyramidal Neurons from the Central Nervous System (SEM x3,960 : 

IVMS©1999-2009 Pyramidal Neurons from the Central Nervous System (SEM x3,960 23

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