SLD 08 Terrorism

Category: Education

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By: forn61 (115 month(s) ago)

I found this to be an excellent presentation. I would love to use it in my International and Domestic Terrorism class I teach to law enforcement officers. Could you please send it to me at [email protected]? Thanks

By: ncisagentioan (138 month(s) ago)

Awesome presentation I just love it, could you please send it to me as soon as possible to [email protected]; I'll put this presentation on my pocket pc to show it to a friend :D

By: mramelin (139 month(s) ago)

In fact, I am very interested in inyour all terrorsim presentation. As I said earlier in my previous comments, shoild you very kind if you can allow me to download these presentations in order to educate my colleagues and to perform our organisation deterrence. I live in Tomasina/Madagascar. This is my mail adress: [email protected] As it is said Dynatec Ambatovy Project is one of the huge project in the world. Best regards, Michel RAMELINA

Presentation Transcript


Terrorism & Force Protection


“Freedom and fear are at war…Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.” President George W. Bush 20 September, 2001


History Definitions Impact of Terrorism Objective of Terrorism Tactics of Terrorism Effects of Terrorism on National Security Force Protection Overview


Found as early as biblical times Jewish and Palestinian groups opposed Roman rule in 66-73 A.D. Word terrorism has roots in French “Reign of Terror” 1773-1794, Jacobins under leadership of Maximilien Robespierre Huge explosion in incidents of terrorism in latter part of 20th century History


1996: Osama bin Laden issues declaration of war: “Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places” 1998: Osama bin Laden issues another Fatwa—duty to kill Americans anytime, anywhere 1998: Coordinated bombings of U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar el Salaam, Tanzania 2000: USS Cole attacked by suicide bombers while refueling in Yemen 2001: World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks 2002: Diplomat Laurence Foley murdered in Jordan 2005: Bombings at 3 American owned hotels in Amman, Jordan al-Qaeda vs. U.S.


Terrorism 22 United States Code 2656d(f)… the term “terrorism” means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents…


Terrorism Walter Laqueur… “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.”


Terrorism The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or idelogical. Joint Publication 3-07.2, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Antiterrorism


Domestic Terrorism Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against their fellow citizens Includes acts against citizens of a second country when they are in the host country, and not the principal or intended target Terrorism

Domestic Terrorism: 

Oklahoma City bombing of Murrah Federal building on 19 April 1995 killed 168 people and injured hundreds of others. Domestic Terrorism Centennial Olympic Park bombing on 26 July 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia killed 2 and injured 111.

Domestic Terrorism: 

Tokyo subway sarin gas attack on 20 March 1995 by the Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth) cult killed 12 and injured approximately 6,000. Domestic Terrorism Bali Nightclub Bombings on 12 October 2002 by the Jemaah Islamiah organization killed 202 people and injured 209.


International terrorism Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries Terrorism

International Terrorism: 

Bombing of Le Belle Disco in West Berlin on 5 April 1986, sponsored by Libya, killing 3 and injuring more than 100. International Terrorism Pan Am Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland on 21 December 1988 by Libyan agents killed 270.

International Terrorism: 

First World Trade Center Attack on 26 February 1993: Islamic terrorists detonated a truck bomb under the towers killing six and damaging the building. International Terrorism American Airlines Flight 63 attempted shoe bombing by Islamic fundamentalist Richard Reid on 22 December 2002.

International Terrorism: 

September 11 Attacks Perpetrated by al-Qaeda Two jets crashed into the World Trade Centers killing 2,752 One jet crashed into the Pentagon killing 189 - One jet crashed in PA killing 45 International Terrorism


Terror Threat The impact on the actual victim of the terrorist attack is often secondary to the emotional or psychological impact on an audience far larger than the victims The true target of the terrorist is society as a whole. Terrorism


Terrorism Objectives Attract attention for groups cause Demonstrate groups power Show the existing government’s lack of power Extract revenge Obtain logistical support Cause a government to overreact

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Assassination: The killing of prominent persons and symbolic enemies or traitors who defect from the group. On 6 October 1981, Egyptian President Sadat was assassinated during an military parade by army members who were part of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad On 4 November 1995, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated after attending a rally by a right-wing activist Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Arson Less dramatic than most tactics Low risk Low level of technical knowledge Often associated with environmental terrorists 1 August 2003: Biggest act of eco- terrorism in U.S. history was a fire set by the Earth Liberation Front that destroyed a $50 million apartment complex just outside San Diego Common Terrorist Tactics


Vail, Colorado: The arson attack at a Colorado ski resort October 19, 1998, was apparently carried out by members of the so-called Earth Liberation Front. Destroyed a ski patrol headquarters building, a skier shelter, a mountaintop restaurant and several chairlifts Caused some $12 million in damage Set to protest the Vail ski resort's 880-acre expansion.


The improvised explosive device (IED) or Bomb is the terrorist’s weapon of choice. Inexpensive to produce Various detonation techniques available, may be a low risk to the perpetrator. Suicidal bombing cannot be overlooked. Other advantages include their attention-getting capacity-ability to control casualties through time of detonation and placement of the device. Easily deniable should the action produce undesirable results. From 1983 through 1996, approximately half of all recorded terrorist incidents involved explosives.

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Bombing: the improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice. 7 July 2005, London bombings were a series of coordinated three suicide bombings that struck public transport system killing 56 and injuring 700 25 June 1996, Hezbollah exploded a fuel truck packed with 3,000-5,000 lbs of explosives at the Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; 20 killed and 372 wounded Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Bombing: the improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice. 23 October 1983, terrorists using a truck bomb destroyed the Marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon. 245 killed and 146 wounded 12 October 2000, suicide attack on the Navy destroyer USS Cole in the port of Aden in Yemen. 17 sailors, 39 injured Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Bombing: the improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice. 7 August 1998, bombs exploded almost simultaneously at the U.S. Embassy buildings in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania - Killed 153 and left over 4,500 injured - Severely damaged both installations Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Hostage Taking: an overt seizure of individuals with the intent of gaining publicity or other concessions in return for release of the hostage. On 1 Sep 2004, Chechen terrorists took hundreds of school children and adults hostage in Beslan, Russia; 331 civilians were killed, 186 of them children On 4 Nov 1979, student militants stormed the U.S. Embassy in Teheran, Iran and held 66 American diplomats and Marines hostage for 444 days. Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Kidnapping: a covert seizure of one or more specific person in order to extract specific demands. On 23 October 2002, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia took Íngrid Betancourt, a Colombian senator while campaigning for president; still missing On 17 December 1981, U.S. Army General James Dozier was kidnapped in Milan by Red Brigade terrorists; Italian counter terrorist squads subsequently rescued him on January 28, 1982 Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Hijacking or Skyjacking: is normally carried out to produce a spectacular hostage situation Although trains, buses, and ships have been hijacked, aircraft are the preferred because of their greater mobility 14 June 1985, TWA Flight 847 was hijacked by Lebanese terrorists en route from Athens to Rome Robert Stethem, a United States Navy diver and steelworker, was killed Three of the alleged hijackers are on the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list Common Terrorist Tactics

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Seizure: usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audience 20 November 1979, 250 Sunni Muslim militants occupied Mecca's Masjid al Haram mosque; 250 killed and 600 wounded 1786-1787, Shays' Rebellion shut down the unpopular debtors' courts in Massachusetts - 4 rebels killed - Key event leading to Constitutional Convention Common Terrorist Tactics


Armed attacks on facilities are usually undertaken for one of three purposes: To gain access to radio or television broadcast capabilities in order to make a statement; To demonstrate the government’s inability to secure critical facilities or national symbols; To acquire resources (e.g., robbery of a bank or armory). Raids or Attacks on Facilities


During the 1970’s, the Symbionese Liberation Army conducted a 22-month reign of terror in California during which time 2 people were murdered and 3 others were wounded. Gained most of their notoriety by kidnapping newspaper heiress Patty Hearst Majority of their crimes, which they financed by robbing banks, involved bombings.


The objective in most sabotage incidents is to demonstrate how vulnerable society is to terrorist actions. Industrialized societies are more vulnerable to sabotage than less highly developed societies. Sabotage Eco-Terrorists have long used sabotage as a form of attack. Spiking trees (the process of placing a spike in a tree so that a logger will hit it when downing the tree) Burning buildings under construction, such as the Vail, Colorado attack

Common Terrorist Tactics: 

Hoaxes: Group that has established credibility can employ a hoax with considerable success. - Threat that causes diversion of resources - False alarms dulls efficiency and readiness - 11 October 2001: 800 at Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection were kept out for 2 days after an anthrax hoax. $40,000 to decontaminate 12 employees with $1.5 million lost work. - 17 October 2001: 17 year-old brought an envelope containing white, powdery material to school. 3,000 were held in lock-down for 90 minutes while 50 emergency response personnel assessed the situation. Common Terrorist Tactics


Infrastructure technologies provide attractive targets for terrorists who can apply a range of rudimentary and advanced attack techniques to disrupt or undermine confidence in a range of systems. National infrastructure, transportation, telecommunications, energy, banking, public health, and water supply are becoming increasingly dependent on computerized systems and linkages Use of Technology

Uncommon Terrorist Tactic: 

Environmental Destruction: increasing accessibility of sophisticated weapons and explosives to terrorists has the potential to threaten damage to the environment. - Iraqi Armed Forces retreated from Kuwait and practiced a scorched earth policy by setting fire to oil wells in 1991 - Protection of oil wells was a key feature of planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq Uncommon Terrorist Tactic


Terrorists to date have used chemical weapons and there is potential for the use of both chemical and biological weapons in the future. Relatively cheap and easy to make, could be used in place of conventional explosives in many situations. Sarin gas attack in March 1995 in the Tokyo subway 2001 Anthrax attacks Use of Special Weapons


Today, we face a new enemy…one who wages a different kind of war Asymmetric Warfare As the single remaining large superpower, most of our enemies know that challenging the United States symmetrically carries too much risk…therefore, they hit and run…generally soft targets Terrorisms Affect On National Security: U.S. Strategy…


Current U.S. policy on countering terrorism was first stated by the Reagan Administration and has been reaffirmed by every president since. Counter Terrorism Policy National Security Strategy 1. The U.S. will make no concessions to terrorists 2. The U.S. will treat terrorists as criminals and apply the rule of law 3. The U.S. will apply maximum pressure on state sponsors of terrorism


The Clinton Administration added a corollary to these rules: 4. The U.S. will Help other governments improve their capabilities to combat terrorism.

Department of Homeland Security: 

Cabinet Department…Michael Chertoff - Coordinates the response capabilities of 22 governmental agencies - Second only to the DoD in size, consisting of 180,000 employees Department of Homeland Security

Department of Homeland Security: 

Not a new concept - Coastal forts - National Airborne Operations Center - Ballistic Missile Defense Department of Homeland Security

U.S. Military Policy: 

U.S. forces will continue to perform our missions; and Force protection will be a major consideration in future actions. The DOD program adheres to this policy while addressing acts of terrorism from two perspectives: - Counter-terrorism (offensive measures) - Antiterrorism (defensive measures) U.S. Military Policy


Examples of offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. - Operation El Dorado Canyon - Operation Infinite Reach - “War on Terrorism” Article 51 of the UN Charter entitles a nation to defend itself against attack. Counter-Terrorism


Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts Includes limited response and containment by local military forces Setting new buildings back from roads and parking lots Khobar Towers actions Army limiting access to all of their CONUS posts…completely open in past Antiterrorism Counter and Anti terrorism both rely on intel…


For our counter-terrorism and antiterrorism measures to be effective, we must have some idea of what particular terrorist groups are attempting to accomplish. We gain this insight through an active counterintelligence program. FBI, CIA, NSA, OSI, CID, NIS, ATF, DEA… Counterintelligence


Force Protection The use of forces to protect resources and personnel with thorough force protection measures.


After the Khobar Towers bombing, the USAF relocated all of our forces in theater out of heavily populated areas to an isolated, defensible, base in the desert Force Protection After the USS Cole bombing, the U.S. Navy instituted plans to deploy a floating barrier around its warships in high risk areas


History Definitions Impact of Terrorism Objective of Terrorism Tactics of Terrorism Effects of Terrorism on National Security Force Protection Summary



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