Psyched Researcher's Power Point; Texting vs Phone Calls

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Slide1:

The literature indicates increasing popularity of texting as a mode of communication and social interaction among all age groups (Hyman & Schreiber, 2014). It has become more popular than talking on the phone over the last few years and as research illustrates the younger the individual the more they text (Pelak, Ceccucci, and Sendall, 2010). A study in Norway analyzed 394 million anonymous texts and found out that teens were the heaviest users, followed by young adults (Ling, Bertel, Sundsoy 2011). Although, texting has surpassed making phone calls among younger cell phone users, the older age groups are catching up (Forgays, Hyman, Schreiber, 2013). Method Discussion Preference of Text Messaging Over Talking By Phone Nicole Costa, Malgorzata Domagala , Valeri Liebig, and Kristen Torp Azusa Pacific University Graduate Psychology Reasons for Method of Communication Phone Calls Increased Over Past 5 Years References Literature Review Results W e surveyed male and female participants including friends, family members and fellow Azusa Pacific University (APU) students. In order to understand whether young adults prefer texting or calling on the phone, the Psyched Researchers constructed a ten-question survey including 8 quantitative questions and two qualitative questions. Results neither support nor disprove our research and hypothesis that men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, use texting as a means of communication more often than talking on the phone. After reviewing the survey results, from our 18 participants it appears that our hypothesis was determined to be inconclusive . The survey respondents reported that their preferred means of communication varied in method as well as in circumstance such as for personal reasons or for work . Emergency  Communication outdated. (2008). Communications News ,  45 (2), 7 . Rettie, R. (2007) Texters not talkers: Phone call aversion among mobile phone users. PsychNology Journal, 5.1, 33-57 .

Literature Review:

Literature Review The literature indicates increasing popularity of texting as a mode of communication and social interaction among all age groups (Hyman & Schreiber, 2014). It has become more popular than talking on the phone over the last few years and as research illustrates the younger the individual the more they text (Pelak, Ceccucci, and Sendall, 2010). A study in Norway analyzed 394 million anonymous texts and found out that teens were the heaviest users, followed by young adults (Ling, Bertel, Sundsoy 2011). Texting has surpassed making phone calls among younger cell phone users, the older age groups are catching up (Forgays, Hyman, Schreiber, 2013). 18-24 year olds text the most as they are the native cell phone users – the first generation who have grown up with cell phones (Forgays, Hyman, Schreiber, 2013). The decline in text usage among older age groups might be due to change in responsibilities, increased demand of family life, career or parenthood (Ling, Bertel, Sundsoy, 2011) . There is no significant difference in how texting was used regardless of age or gender. (Pelak, Ceccucci, & Sendall, 2010). Holtgraves and Paul (2013) analyzed text messages of students 18 to 41 year old, and found out that 54% text messages are sent to friends, 29% to significant others, 12% to family members and the rest to all others. Most texting happens within a relatively small circle of contacts (Ling, Bertel, Sundsoy, 2011). Research done by Crosswhite, Rice, Asay (2012) showed that almost half of their participants find that texting helps their family feel connected. Family members text to pass on information, send photos, coordinate activities and plan events. Moreover, people text to fill extra time, and for general conversation (Crosswhite, Rice, Asay (2012).

Literature Review cont.:

Literature Review cont. In romantic relationships both texting and calling helps to stay in constant contact. The study conducted by Jin and Pena (2010) shows that although texting might be preferred in the initial stages of relationships, it is calling more than texting that impacts how partners feel about their relationship love and commitment (Jin, Pena, 2010). A study done by Crosswhite, Rice, Asay (2012) suggests that both genders feel that they can be more honest through a text, over 60% claims that they would not lie in a text and over three quarters of participants never ignore a text. On the other hand, due to their almost instantaneous delivery, text messages create a sense of urgency, which makes them hard to ignore (Kiddie, 2014). According to Rosman (2010) preference of texting over calling is changing the dynamic of human interaction. Although it saves time, the quality of communication is compromised. In fact, too much texting might reduce our vocabulary, and the command of language (Ray, 2013 ) Text messaging might never replace voice calling in business context because of the more complex nature of workplace communication (Kiddie, 2014). As much as it can be used in in the initial stages of business transactions, important decisions and details require talking on rather than texting (Rosman, 2010). Survey of 518 participants illustrates that calling is preferred over texting in work related contexts. However, some would use text messaging for event scheduling and personal rather than work related conversation in the workplace (Kiddie, 2014).   T Texting is preferred by 18-30 year olds for both personal and business communication. So , although the cultural belief that texting should not be used for business communication still persists, this might change as native with cell phones users enter the workforce (Kiddie, 2014).

Literature Review cont.:

Literature Review cont. Study by Reid and Reid (2007) indicates that there are talkers and texters . Talkers prefer voice calling but they also text. T T exters , however, use text messaging as a primary mode of communication because they do not feel comfortable on the phone (Reid, Reid, 2007). Similarly , Rettie found that the attitudes towards texting can be described as a continuum. At one end of the spectrum are those who talk and text and at the other end are those with aversion to talking on the phone who text only (Rettie, 2007) and everyone else in between . Some participants feel that they are less susceptible to manipulation via text versus phone conversation. There is also freedom to delete or ignore a text message, as well as use affective words with lower risk of rejection and embarrassment (Rettie, 2007). Holtgraves , Paul’s (2013) study of language of texting and calling noted that text messages are more concise yet more personal and intimate while phone conversations are more cognitive and informational (Holtgraves, Paul ,2013). Reid and Reid’s (2007 ) study on the impact of social anxiety and loneliness on texting behavior noted preference for texting over calling among anxious participants. Texting eliminated the need for small talk, the discomfort of awkward silence, performance pressure and uncomfortable conversation endings (Rettie, 2007). Some also used texting as time filler or procrastination tactic . The lonely participants preferred voice calls and considered texting as less intimate (Reid, Reid, 2007).

Literature Review cont.:

Literature Review cont. F actors contributing to the popularity of texting are: the ability to stay in constant contact (Ling, Bertel, Sundsoy, 2011) almost immediately (Forgays, Hyman, Schreiber, 2013 ) cost effectiveness and privacy factor by allowing the recipient to respond at their convenience they are less invasive (Reid, Reid, 2007; Rosman, 2010 and Ray 2013). Texting is available when other forms of communication are not and it helps to fill time (Reid, Reid, 2007) . It is fast, easy to send and reply, inconspicuous and not disruptive (Rettie, 2007). Receiving emergency alerts is preferred over a text than a phone call (Communication, News 2008). However , calling is generally preferred over texting while driving (Forgays, Hyman, Schreiber (2013). It appears that texting and calling are not mutually exclusive and can be used interchangeably depending on individual and cultural preferences.

Slide6:

Method Participants On our quest to understand what mode of communication either texting or talking on the phone, is most popular today with individuals aged 20 to 40 years, we surveyed male and female participants including friends, family members and fellow Azusa Pacific University (APU) students within the set age range. The APU students involved in the survey are all enrolled in the program mastering in Clinical Psychology with an emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy.  The friends and family members are those in relationships or related to the members of the Psyched Researchers research team. Participants were sent an email request to participate that included the option to opt out at any time without penalty. After receiving the request, 18 participants agreed and took the online survey.

Method cont.:

Method cont. Materials The research team discussed project ideas on the Azusa Pacific University, Research Design, course web page, Sakai.  We used the group forums section to communicate important information about survey questions, participants and eventually results. An email request was sent to each participant along with a link to the survey on the online website SurveyMonkey . Procedure In order to understand whether young adults prefer texting or calling on the phone, the Psyched Researchers constructed a ten-question survey including 8 quantitative questions and two qualitative questions .  The quantitative questions were made up of 5 Point Likert Scale questions with answers ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The two qualitative questions were open ended. The survey questions were sent to the OIRA for approval to conduct the research. Once the survey had been approved, a letter requesting participation and a link to the survey from SurveyMonkey was sent via email to the participants with a letter of informed consent with the OIRA heading. Data was collected and the results reviewed.

Results:

Results Results neither support nor disprove our research and hypothesis that men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, use texting as a means of communication more often than talking on the phone. When asked whether texting is their preferred method of communication with their friends and family half of the participants in our study agreed or strongly agreed. Only 33.34 percent of the participants disagreed or strongly disagreed. Everyone else did not feel strongly either way . See chart 1 (Reasons for Method of Communication) According to the results of our questionnaire, the use of text has increased within our population, while the use of phone communication has not over the last five years . When asked whether the amount of texts sent per day has increased over the last five years, participants agreed and strongly agreed at a total of 72.22 percent . Results for the question asking whether the amount of phone calls made per day has increased over the last five years, only 27.78 percent of the participants either agreed or strongly agreed. 44.45 percent of the participants disagreed or strongly disagreed.   The remaining 27.78 neither agreed nor disagreed. The major exceptions to our hypothesis on texting verses phone calling, are in regards to making phone calls for family, business and school.

Results cont.:

Results cont. Given the question about preferring the use of texting for school and or business, the participants mostly disagreed with a total of 61.11 percent of participants either disagreeing or strongly disagreeing. Only 33.33 percent of the participants either agreed or strongly disagreed. The remaining 5.56 percent of our participants neither agreed or disagreed. When asked whether, speaking on the phone is their preferred mode of communication over texting, with friends and family, participants overwhelmingly agreed with 66.67 percent either agreeing or strongly agreeing. When it comes to amount of phone calls made, more than half of the participants either disagreed or strongly disagreed that phone calls increased over the past 5 years 21% strongly disagreed 34% disagreed 10% neither disagree nor agreed 21% agreed 14% strongly agreed See chart 2 for a pie graph of opinions of phone call increase Table 1 depicts the mean and standard deviation for this study These numbers depict the inconclusiveness of our survey The SD shows that the results are possibly due to chance and therefore insignificant

Reasons for Method of Communication:

Reasons for Method of Communication

Phone Calls Increased Over Past 5 Years:

Phone Calls Increased Over Past 5 Years

Table of Quantitative Results:

Table of Quantitative Results

Discussion:

Discussion In this study our hypothesis was: when communicating, individuals betwee n the ages of 20 and 40 prefer texting over talking by phone. After reviewing the survey results, from our 18 participants it appears that our hypothesis was determined to be inconclusive . The survey respondents reported that their preferred means of communication varied in method as well as in circumstance such as for personal reasons or for work. While reviewing literature and other research data we learned that other studies had produced similar outcomes in depicting an increase of text messaging and had also reported finding texting as becoming an increasingly preferred mode of communication (Pelak, Ceccucci, and Sendall, 2010). Although our survey results were determined to be inconclusive, other research supports our hypothesis. Even though our sample size of 18 participants was relatively small, we believe that our study could be generalizable and would have a similar outcome with similar findings if we were to replicate it or if it were to be repeated with a larger sample size. As time progresses text messaging is gaining increased popularity and therefore we believe our hypothesis will be more likely to be confirmed in the future. Other research that has been done from all over the world has found that texting has become more popular than talking on the phone and other forms of communication among with younger people (Forgays, Hyman, Schreiber, 2013) but the literature also indicates that texting is rapidly increasing in popularity for people in all age groups (Hyman & Schreiber, 2014). Even though research says that there is an overall total increase in the frequency and popularity of texting, some of the research reports that certain people are texters and certain people are talkers (Reid, Reid, 2007) and some people fall in between on a continuum (Rettie, 2007).

Discussion cont.:

Discussion cont. The temporal generalizability of this study however might be compromised due to the rapid progress of technology currently happening in society. For example, texting messaging was not created or readily available 20 years ago and a new form of communication that is around today may be invented in the future. Because of this, how quickly technology advances and how large of a role technology plays on communication, it is very difficult to tell if texting whether texting will be a preferred mode of communication 20 years from now. Due to how rapidly this field is changing is it necessary that future studies are done in this area to accommodate growth and change in technology and in user preferences. Because of how prevalent texting has become it would be beneficial to conduct further studies on the ways that the increase in texting has affected people and relationships both positively and negatively. This research is incredibly relevant because communication impacts all areas of life including relationships, business, and emergency notification systems. There are countless scenarios where it is important to understand communication preferences including employers who need to get in touch with employees and faculty who need to get in touch with students and other faculty. Studying communication preferences creates a better understanding of how to contact people in a way that will be received and replied in the most time efficient way. Communication affects every aspect of life so we felt that it was an important area to study in order to increase knowledge and create more awareness in this meaningful area of study. Although our study ended in inconclusive results, we believe that it is a stepping-stone to promote more studies on communication within technological means. Since text messaging impacts so many people all around the world, we feel this knowledge about inclination toward texting has the potential to impact many different industries worldwide.

References:

References Crosswhite, J. M., Rice, D., Asay, S. (2014) Texting among United States young adults: An  exploratory   study on texting and its use within families.   Social Science Journal , 51 (1), 70 - 78.   Emergency Communication outdated. (2008). Communications News ,  45 (2), 7. Forgays, D. K., Hyman, I., & Schreiber, J. (2014). Texting everywhere for everything: Gender and age differences in cell phone etiquette and use. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 314- 321. 10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.053   Holtgraves, T. ,Paul, K (2013) Texting versus talking: An exploration in telecommunication language.   Telematics and Informatics.  30 (4) 289–295.   Jin, B., & Peña, J. F. (2010).  Mobile  Communication in Romantic Relationships: Mobile Phone Use, Relational Uncertainty, Love, Commitment, and Attachment Styles. Communication Reports ,  23 (1), 39-51. doi:10.1080/08934211003598742   Kiddie, T. J. (2014). Text( ing ) in Context: The Future of Workplace  Communication in the United States.  Business Communication Quarterly ,  77 (1), 65-88. doi:10.1177/2329490613511493   Ling, R., Troels , F. (2012) The socio-demographics of texting: An analysis of traffic data.  New Media & Society   .    14 (2),  281-298.   Peslak , Ceccucci, and Sendall (2010). An Empirical Study of Text Messaging Behavioral Intention and Usage.  Journal of Information Systems Applied Research,  3 (3).  

References cont.:

References cont. Ray, S. (2013). Emails, Texting, Replacing Phone Calls? Don't Believe it.  The Business Journals . Retrieved February 20, 2015 from http:// www.bizjournals.com / bizjournals /how -to /marketing/2013/12/texting - email -phones-not-going-away.html?page =all   Reid, D. J., & Reid, F. J. M. (2007) Text or talk? Social anxiety, loneliness, and divergent preferences for cell phone use.  Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 10.3,  424-435. Doi : 10.1089/cpb.2006.9936   Rettie, R. (2007) Texters not talkers: Phone call aversion among mobile phone users. PsychNology Journal, 5.1, 33-57.   Rosman, K. (2010). Why You Love Texts, Hate Calls: We want to reach others but not be interrupted.  Wall Street Journal  . Retrieved from http :// www.wsj.com /articles / SB10001424052748703673604575550201949192336