Survey Monkeys- TV & GPA Research

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Slide1:

In reviewing the literature related to TV v.s . reading and how they affect academic achievement, there appears to be a strong support to the idea that watching TV is correlated to a decrease in academic performance. In a study by Lederman (2008), they find that students who spent more time watching TV had lower GPAs compared to those who spent less time watching TV. Similarly, Searls (1985) and his team indicated that TV watching did not contribute to achievement in school, they instead talked about how SES and age had the biggest influence on how much TV watching affected achievement ( Searls , 1985). These two studies provide strong support to the idea watching TV will decrease GPA in comparison to reading. Method Discussion Television & School Performance Hannah Elliott, Jennifer Ritcher, Jazminne Robles, Jessie Ordaz AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY PPSY 572 RESEARCH METHODS đŸ” Fig. 1. Decision Making Fig. 2. Influence References Literature Review Results đŸ” We created a survey on the Survey Monkey website, consisting of 8 quantitative and 2 qualitative questions. All of the participants were between the ages of 18 and 30 and had been in a college level program for at least one year. The s urvey was distributed to all of our participants via email and it included the link to the survey, the OIRA stamp of approval, description of the study, and stated informed consent. After one week the survey closed and the results were then analyzed on Survey Monkey website. After reviewing and analyzing the results of our survey on the Survey Monkey website we noticed that the main factor that we took away from all of the data collected was that TV did not have much of an impact on the college students’ overall GPA and performance in school. We found that there were many other factors that were reported by the participants that influenced how they performed in school, like having a job, managing adult stressors, parents, culture, socioeconomic status, etc. Our hypothesis going into this research study was that college students who watched more TV than read books would have a lower GPA. We have found that our results point towards TV not having a significant impact on college students’ GPA and academic performance. Burgess, S. R., Stermer , S. P., & Burgess, M. R. (2012). Video Game Playing & Academic Performance in College Students. College Student Journal , 46 (2), 376-387. Chui, M., Chow, B., Joh, S. (2017). Streaming tracking & reading achievement: a multilevel analysis of students in 40 countries. Journal of Educational Psy . 109(7), 915.

Literature Review::

Literature Review: In reviewing the literature related to television and reading, and how it affects academic achievement, there appears to be a strong support to the notion that television viewing has a correlation to a decrease in academic performance. A study performed by Lederman (2008) at the University of Minnesota’s Health Services, stated that students who spent more time watching television had lower GPAs in comparison to those who spent less time watching television. Similar findings were noted by Searls (1985) and his team indicating that television watching did not contribute to achievement in school. He goes further in discussing how Socio-economic status and even more so age had the biggest influence on how much TV watching affected achievement and time doing reading or homework (Searls, 1985). These two studies provide strong support to the idea watching television will decrease GPA in comparison to reading. In correlation with television, a study was conducted reviewing the effects of playing video games and GPA. This is relevant since television watching and video gaming are both forms of technological media in which the individual is engaging in something which tends to be considered non-academic. The team used a self-report survey on college students to determine how much time was spent playing or watching others play video games, while also asking about GPA and academic success (Burgess et. al., 2012). The results indicated that there was a highly significant negative correlation between video games and GPA, and the correlation was even stronger among those who watched others play video games (Burgess et. al., 2012). It is interesting how the act of watching others play video games indicates stronger evidence to lower GPA, perhaps since watching another play the game is similar to individuals watching television are watching others play out their lives.

Slide3:

Literature Review (continued): Something that has been growing a lot of popularity in society has been “binge-watching”, where individuals will sit and watch multiple episodes in a row. This is the fame and reputation behind the appeal of Netflix, where many binge watch their favorite television shows. Panda and Pandey (2017) discuss the pleasure-seeking aspect in binge-watching and the motivation behind it. Panda and Pandey (2017) found that college students are motivated to binge-watch as a stress reliever, social engagement, and simply because it is easily accessible. Television provides quick reward with its fast pace entertainment (Nathanton et. al., 2014). With the influx of television watching and the appeal of a divergence from stress, along with the previous stated research, if their GPA were taken into consideration, it may suggest support for a correlation. As we move on to take into account other factors which contribute to academic achievement, it is important to consider the effects of television on cognitive development and function. Kikorian (2008) and his team noted from their study that media had the tendency to “disrupts” the child’s developmental process. Ohio State University and its researchers studied the relationship between development of executive function and its link to television exposure (Nathanton et. al., 2014). Executive function is the slow development of goal-directed, self-regulatory behaviors (Nathanton et. al., 2014). Nathanton (2014) and his colleagues found that television viewing was detrimental to executive function development. It even associated television left on as background noise was linked to weaker executive function (Nathanton et. al, 2014). Similar findings were published based of a study on Southern Taiwanese children. The results indicated children who were exposed to excessive television were at higher risk of cognitive, language, and motor delays (Ling et. al., 2015).

Slide4:

Literature Review (continued): Many college students have the habit of studying with the television on in the background; the findings of this study indicate how this diminishes particular functions. It can further be hypothesized that it correlates with lower GPA, since these functions are needed to do well in school. Cognitive, language, and motor development are crucial aspects related to academic achievement. Diminished function in these areas could correlate with adults, who view television and receive that instant gratification in comparison with reading a book, which is not as fast-paced as television, and requires the use of more advanced cognitive and language development. Television has popularity based on the mental effort necessary to watch it (Salomon, 1984). Television allows participants to use less of invested mental effort than print and verbal material (Saloman, 1984). Saloman (1984) states how television is best beneficial for learning when the material has been already learned and that TV uses a shallow and mindless process. In contrast to television watching, the effects of reading on GPA is an important component to consider. Cunningham and Stanovich (2001) reported children who had a higher volume of reading displayed significantly higher levels of comprehension and vocabulary skills. Coinciding with this study, it was also studied that spending more time reading in the past, is an indicator that the person will have higher achievement in reading (Chui et. al., 2017). In summary, reading appears to indicate a strong correlation to higher academic achievement in school.

Slide5:

Literature Review (continued): In some instances, there was not significant evidence to support the hypothesis in which television will result in lower GPA compared to reading. The effects of media usage on school performance was also evaluated (Sharif et. al., 2010). What they ended up finding was “both screen exposure time and media content had adverse effects on change in school performance” and “screen exposure had an indirect effect on poor school performance through increased sensation seeking” (Sharif, et.al., 2010). They did not find results that directly linked media usage and school performance, but what they did notice was that different external factors, including things like household income and parenting style, were more directly related to a child’s overall school performance. Those children were more likely to have been using substances and experiencing “sensation seeking” behaviors (Sharif, et.al., 2010). Similarly, a study done by Hershberger (2002) reviewed the effects of television on school performance and goes as far as to use the term “evil” to describe its effects. Hershberger (2002) states, “results indicated that there is an inverse relationship between high-school amounts of television viewing and high school GPAs”, but there was no significance found in the college levels. There appears to be other factors which contribute to the lack of evidence present in college students. There appears to be an overwhelming amount of research done on the effects of television on a decreased GPA and academic achievement. It is crucial to define the factors pertaining to being able to function academically. Cognitive development and other related functions are the components which make up with individuals ability to perform in school. Reading has been regarded to have beneficial effects on academic achievement. However, studies have also found television to be inconclusive in relation to GPA and academic achievement.

Slide6:

Method: Participants Participants were selected by availability of each group member and all of our participants were mainly family members, friends, fellow classmates, and previous classmates. Participants in our study included men and women ages 18-30 and at the time of the study, had been enrolled in a higher-level education as an undergraduate or graduate student at a College or University for at least one consecutive year. There were no preferences in gender, ethnicity, race, religion, area of study, etc. when it came to our study, in fact we had a wide variety of participants when it came to these different characteristics. We emailed each of our participants with the OIRA approval stamp, informed consent, general description of the study, and link to the actual survey being used. We had given them an adequate amount of time to complete the survey, about one week, if they so wish to partake in the study. At the end of our study we emailed all of the participants saying thank for participating and/or considering our study. Materials Online materials and resources were used for the study. Survey Monkey, an online survey maker, was utilized to create and publish the survey. Electronic devices were used to create the survey. After making the survey accessible to the participants, we emailed the link to the participants so that they could complete the survey on their own time or if they so wished to do so. Survey Monkey was also utilized to help us analyze the data collected and create tables, charts, and graphs that represented all of the data. Research articles were collected from the Azusa Pacific University online database and through multiple journals published online. Each group member had access to the Survey Monkey website and login with the appropriate username and password.

Method (continued): :

Method (continued): Procedure Each group member created questions for the survey (both qualitative and quantitative) based on what we were looking to find in our research and based on our hypothesis about television having an impact on school performance in adulthood. All Survey questions were created utilizing the findings in the literature, and all answers were based on the five level Likert scale ranging from strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. After OIRA approval, we utilized the online database Survey Monkey to create and format our survey. We also created a formal email that was then sent out to all of the participants being used in the study. A link for the survey was included in the email sent out to all of our participants and the email included OIRA stamp of approval, general description of the study, and brief introduction of each group member. Participants were then able to take the survey on their own time within the one-week time frame stated. We closed access to the survey after the one week, then emailed all participants thanking them for their time and consideration. We were able to collect data from 17 participants. Survey Monkey was then used to analyze the data and we were able to create graphs, tables, and charts representing the entirety of the data. Results were then analyzed utilizing percentages and visuals collected from Survey Monkey and group members then figured out the mean, sample standard deviation, population standard deviation, and variance for the sample and population standard deviations.

Slide8:

Results : After going over the results of our survey the main factor that we took away from all of the data collected was that television did not have much of an impact on the college students’ overall GPA and performance in school. We found that there were many other factors that were reported by the participants that influenced how they performed in school, like having a job, managing adult stressors, parents, culture, socioeconomic status, etc. We were interested in seeing if the amount of time spent watching TV was correlated to their GPA, but we noticed that it is different as someone gets into adulthood. There are many different studies that have been done in the past that addressed TV watching and school performance at the child and adolescence stages, but according to our study we came to the conclusion that it is not true in adulthood and being in undergraduate and graduate programs at the college/university level. When it comes to the qualitative questions we found out how there are many other factors that come into play when it comes to GPA and school performance and those other factors seem to play a much bigger role in people's lives, especially in this particular stage of life (ages 18-30). We had the idea that television could play some type of role in overall GPA and school performance but we also wanted to know some of the other factors that have an influence on their overall GPA. Some of the indicators that participants stated in the last question about listing the top three things that they believe have the most impact on their overall GPA and most of the participants stated, work, procrastination/motivation, stress, and time management. We also noticed that with the other qualitative question about self-reporting their overall GPA, a varied amount of responses and grade point averages ranged from 2.5 to 4.0.

Results (continued): :

Results (continued): When looking at the different trends in the answer selections by our participants, we noticed that some of the quantitative questions had a variety of answers and were probably subjective for each participant. For example, the questions like “I feel that if I watched less television, I would get a higher GPA” and “In general, I like reading”, there were no definite answers that were chosen by the participants. On the other hand, some of the questions that were answered were more one sided, in that most of the answers were either disagree or agree and did not vary. These questions included “I read more often than watch television during a typical week” and “I tend to watch television at the same time I read”. When looking at the figures/charts above, we notice that in the statement “I find myself watching television instead of doing a school assignment”, most participants answered with strongly agree (35.29%) and agree (35.29%). Similarly, we also notice that in figure/chart 2 over 52% of the responses were either disagree or strongly disagree. As we look at the answers submitted by the participants, we notice that they do not fit into our hypothesis about Television affecting GPA and school performance. We also notice that in previous research that Television did not seem to have a major impact on college students as much as children and adolescents.

Slide10:

Charts/Visuals: Fig. 1. Decision Making Comparing the total amount of responses when asked about whether or not participants would choose watching television over completing a school assignment.

Slide11:

Charts/Visuals (continued): Fig. 2. Influence Comparing and contrasting the amount of responses when asked about whether or not they believe television influences their overall academic performance.

Slide12:

Charts/Visuals (continued): Table 1. Compares/contrasts the results from the quantitative questions asked in the survey about television use and academic performance. The table includes the mean, sample standard deviation, population standard deviation, and the variance for both population and sample standard deviations. Survey Questions (Quantitative) Mean Sample Standard Deviation Population Standard Deviation Variance (Sample Standard Deviation) Variance (Population Standard Deviation) Q1: I find myself watching television instead of doing a school assignment. 12.8 13.255 11.855 175.7 140.56 Q2: I believe that watching television has affected my academic performance negatively. 9 6.519 5.830 42.5 34 Q3: I read more often than watch television during a typical week. 6.4 5.319 4.758 28.3 22.64

Slide13:

Charts/Visuals (continued): Table 1. (continued) Survey Questions (Quantitative) Mean Sample Standard Deviation Population Standard Deviation Variance (Sample Standard Deviation) Variance (Population Standard Deviation) Q4: I watch TV every day. 11.6 12.033 10.762 144.8 115.84 Q5: I feel that if I watched less television, I would get a higher GPA. 10 5.099 4.561 26 20.8 Q6: I tend to watch television at the same time I read. 6 4.301 3.847 18.5 14.8 Q7: I feel that television takes less effort than reading. 15.8 23.381 20.913 546.7 436.36 Q8: In general, I like reading. 10.8 10.849 9.704 117.7 94.16

Slide14:

Discussion: Our hypothesis going into this research study was that undergraduate and graduate students who watched more Netflix/TV than read assigned books would have a lower GPA. We have found that our results point toward TV not having a significant impact on college students’ overall GPA and academic performance. Our hypothesis was unsupported by the results, which was inconsistent with previous research. Instead, we found that other life circumstances or factors contributed to the overall GPA or academic success of the college students in the study. These included factors such as jobs, family, lack of motivation, and lack of time to complete school assignments. We received these responses from question 10 of our survey. Most of the research that we did prior to conducting our study seemed to conclude that the amount of television watched and a student’s academic success were inversely related. Burgess, Stermer, and Burgess (2012) found that even watching others play video games decreased their future or current academic GPA. One final study conducted by Ling et al. (2015) concluded that those who grew up watching large amounts of television had delays in cognition, language, and motor function. These studies supported our hypothesis. However, on the other hand, we did also find research during our literature review that pointed away from the conclusion that TV lowers academic success levels. Kirkorian, Wartella, and Anderson (2008) found that not all television watching had a negative impact on a student’s GPA, although some media does. Hershberger (2002), who conducted her study on high-school age students, found that the results in her study indicated that the higher the amount of television watched, the lower the GPA of a high school student; inversely, the lower the amount of television watched, the higher their high school GPA. Although this study found an inverse relationship between television and academic success for high school students, it did not support any findings that GPA was lowered when the amount of television watched increased for college students, as our study was mainly focused on.

Slide15:

In terms of limitations, our study had several. First, our sample size was quite small. Having a larger size for a sample could lead to results that are more accurate of the general population and can be generalized to populations of students in other places. Second, our study may have benefited more from having had more survey questions. It was difficult to find only 10 questions that encompassed all of the information that we might have needed to get a better understanding of what student’s trends are when it comes to television and reading. Finally, as mentioned in the previous section, our study did not take into account the impact that culture or other personal factors have on academic success. When it comes to our results from our survey, we wish we would have been a little more specific in our questions, based on the demographic we were working with and ultimately focusing on. We focused on television watching, but in today’s culture, more and more people are not watching standard television. Most people are now using applications and programs such as Netflix, Hulu, etc., instead of watching the standard television. When it comes to our questions, they should have been more tailored to today’s culture since the standard television watching has changed. When looking at the answers that were submitted by our participants we found that the amount of television watched did not seem to have a high impact on this population’s GPA and school performance. Participants gave more insight into their school performance when they listed their top three factors/influences. In future research, we would want to create questions more suitable to the age group and the media culture. We would also want to gain more information about the other factors and influences related to school performance and overall GPA. Discussion (continued):

Slide16:

The relevance of this study lies in that it uncovered the idea that there are other factors that play critical roles in whether a student has high academic achievement or not. Instead of focusing simply on television as the only factor being evaluated, it might help to incorporate other indicators as well, such as socioeconomic status, motivation, work-life balance, parenting styles, etc. This is an area that, if studied in the future, could possibly lead to the ability of pinpointing what factors might be the most impactful to a college student’s academic success. In summary, our study found that the amount of television watched by college students was not as significant as we hypothesized it to be. We realized that other factors could play major roles in the level of academic success or GPA that a student has. Although this was the case, it fosters the idea that more research is necessary so that there is a greater understanding of what truly are the factors that determine or impact academic success. With continued research in this area, students will be able to become more aware of factors that are limiting their academic success or be encouraged to continue finding better ways to manage their time or demands of daily life. Finally, teachers would continue to benefit from research in this area as they would be able to have a better understanding of what in particular is contributing to their students’ GPA and academic success, and how best to help if needed. Discussion (continued):

Slide17:

References: Burgess, S. R., Stermer , S. P., & Burgess, M. R. (2012). Video Game Playing and Academic Performance in College Students. College Student Journal , 46 (2), 376-387. Chui, M., Chow, B., Joh, S. (2017). Streaming tracking and reading achievement: a multilevel analysis of students in 40 countries. Journal of Educational Psychology. 109(7), 915. Retrieved from: Retrieved from: https://0-search-proquest          com.patris.apu.edu / pqrl / docview /1980993531/F6D8503AB4D04019PQ/4?accountid=8459 Cunningham, A. & Stanovich , K. (2001). What reading does for the mind. Journal of Direct Instruction . Retrieved February 21, 2018, from http://oregonliteracypd.uoregon.edu/sites/default/files/topic_documents/16-R1 -Cunningham_0.pdf Hershberger, A. (2002). The “evils” of television: The amount of television viewing and school performance levels. Retrieved February 15, 2018, from https://josotl.indiana.edu/index.php/iusburj/article/download/19788/25865 . Kirkorian , H. L., Wartella , E. A., & Anderson, D. R. (2008). Media and young children’s learning. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/18_01_03.pdf . Lederman, D. (2008). Health, Behavior, and College GPA. Retrieved February 21, 2018, from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/10/21/health Ling, Y., Rong , J., Yung, J., Yi, J., Hei , M. (2015). Effects of television exposure of developmental skills among young children. Infant and Development. 38, 20-26. Doi :   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.12.005 Nathanton , A., Alade , F., Sharp, M., Rasmussen, E., & Christy, K. (2014). The relationship between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers. Developmental Psychology. 50(5), 1497-1506. doi : 10.1037/a0035714.

References::

References: Panda, S., & Pandey, S. C. (2017). Binge watching and college students: motivations and outcomes. Young Consumers , 18(4), 425-438. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/YC-07-2017-00707 Salomon, G. (1984). Television is 'easy' and print is 'tough': The differential investment of mental effort in learning as a function of perceptions and attributions. Journal of Educational Psychology , 76 (4), 647-658. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.76.4.647. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1985-10765-001 Searls, D. T., Mead, N. A., & Ward, B. (1985). The relationship of students' reading skills to TV watching, leisure time reading, and homework. Journal of Reading , 29 (2), 158-162. Sharif, I., Wills, T. A., & Sargent, J. D. (2010). Effect of Visual Media Use on School Performance: A Prospective Study. Journal of Adolescent Health,46 (1), 52-61. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.05.012

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