Note Taking Techniques

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

With the advances in technology research shows that many students may prefer taking notes with a computer rather than taking notes by hand. This literature review will examine the increase in technology advances and how that effects student note-taking preferences. It will also examine other reasons hand-written notes may be preferred over taking notes with a computer. Method Discussion Note-Taking Techniques Ana Torres, Kiaundra Jackson, Jennifer O ’ Grady, and Mayra Nieto Azusa Pacific University Figure 1 Figure 2 References Literature Review Resultss 14 participants were recruited for this study. All participants were graduate students from Azusa Pacific University in the Masters of Arts program in Clinical Psychology with an emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy . The results of this survey show that graduate students prefer taking lecture notes by hand. The survey was comprised of eight quantitative and two qualitative questions. All 14 participants completed the survey items (see Table 1). . Bui, D.C., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2012). Note-taking with computers: Exploring alternative strategies for improved recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (2), 299-309. The present study integrated and expanded on study methods utilized by graduate students. The hypothesis stated that graduate students prefer taking notes by computer rather than by hand. The results did not support the initial prediction. The participants ’ responses demonstrate that pen and paper are more preferred than computer to take notes.

Literature Review :

Literature Review With the advances in technology research shows that many students may prefer taking notes with a computer rather than taking notes by hand. This literature review will examine the increase in technology advances and how that effects student note-taking preferences. It will also examine other reasons hand-written notes may be preferred over taking notes with a computer. Lastly, it will review the difference in retention levels when taking notes by hand versus typing notes with a computer.

Literature Review:

Literature Review According to Gay, Stefanone, Martin, and Hembrooke (2001) wireless computing is an integrative piece of college and work life. Students from different classes use laptop computers to gather information as well as exchange information. Meer (2012) stated that since lecture material is often found online in classroom forums the idea of note-taking is challenged. It is suggested that due to the increasing technological advances and lecture notes being available online many students do not need to develop the essential skill of note-taking.

Literature Review :

Literature Review According to Grabe and Christopherson (2007) the use of online resources as being part of college classes has increased due to student preferences for online lecture notes being available to students. It was found that 61 percent of students use online lecture outlines compared to only 3 percent of students who prefer audio files. This finding seems to contradict the growing interest in offering audio content to students such as pod-casting to supplement learning for college and graduate students. Grabe and Christopherson go on to say that it was speculated that students can review complete notes faster than listening to a pod-cast. The use of online lecture resources, lecture attendance, and examinations performance were positively related. Kiewra et al. (1991) found that students are active learners who have some metacognitive control over their learning strategies. Given that finding, present college students operate in the technology age, preference for note taking with a laptop or ipad seems like a possible learning strategy students will likely adopt if not already.

Literature Review:

Literature Review Research has shown that some students determine their method of note-taking based on the course they are taking. Meter et al. (1994) examined how college students take notes, when they take notes, how they know what to write, and what is done with their notes outside of the classroom. Meter et al. goes on to say that students tend to change their note-taking style after taking a test because they then have a better understanding of what is expected of them in the course. The study found that note-taking may change based on the difficulty of the class. Ward and Tatsukawa (2003) reported that even though computer documents are more legible and easier to edit, many students prefer to take notes by pen and paper because their computer may lack the software needed to support note-taking. When using pen and paper text can be entered at any position on the page. Odhabi (2007) found that there is importance in using Bloom ’ s taxonomy to focus on the learning process of the student more than the technology involved. Teachers and students were asked to participate and answer to the same survey. The findings indicate that teachers and students alike believe using laptops during the learning process enhanced cognitive and psychomotor domains. Students believed it provided them a better opportunity to retain information and apply it in the workforce.

Literature Review:

Literature Review Both handwritten notes and typed notes are being used by college students to retain information that is being taught (Schoen, 2012). Research has shown that teachers and students prefer to use laptops to take notes because it provides them with a better opportunity to retain information and apply it to the workforce (Odhabi, 2007). Bui, Myerson, and Hale (2012) found that it was easier for participants to recall information on tests when they used computers as a form of note-taking. Other methods of note-taking resulted in poor memory. Schoen (2012) examined if note-taking by hand or typing influenced retention. The participants were given a test after a lecture or a textbook reading in order to examine their level of retention.

Literature Review:

Literature Review The results of the study showed that those students who typed their notes had higher retention scores than those who take notes by hand especially after a lecture. Kenneth, DuBois, Christian, and McShand (1988) compared students recall performance when students were provided with study notes to review after viewing a lecture. It was found that the students who were provided with notes did significantly better than the students that were not provided with notes. The study also found that the group of students that were provided with a matrix or outline had higher recall than those students that were given text notes. Bui et al. (2012) found that students who transcribed a lecture using a computer had higher recall when given an immediate test. The study found that organized notes resulted in better recall on tests that were not given immediately after the lecture. The study also found that those who transcribed the lecture and were given time to study their notes before given a test scored higher on tests that were delayed. Yamaguchi and Logan (2014) looked at hierarchical control and how it activates when students take in lecture material while typing. They found that as the student is typing they are processing the information being learned which is helpful for memory and retention of information.

Literature Review:

Literature Review Makany, Kemp, and Dror (2009) found that different means of note-taking enhance cognitive performance. The study looked at linear note-taking that is described as traditional note-taking with a pen and paper. The study compared linear note-taking to non-linear note-taking that consists of graphs and maps to organize, select, and encode information. Non-linear note-takers performed 20 percent higher than linear note-takers in relation to the measurement of metacognitive skills and comprehension. Makany et al. goes on to say that non-linear note-takers reported more positive experiences in their ability to retain information. Note-taking was found to be an important tool for learning, especially non-linear note-taking since it offers a visually accessible format that makes the note-taking process more effective. The research presented in this literature review show that many things can influence note-taking preferences. The current research study proposes that graduate students will prefer taking notes by computer (e.g., laptop, iPad) rather than by hand.

Method :

Method Participants 14 participants were recruited for this study. All participants were graduate students from Azusa Pacific University in the Masters of Arts program in Clinical Psychology with an emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy. The participants were not randomly selected and provided consent to participate in the study. Race, gender, ethnicity, and age were not determining factors.

Method:

Method Materials Throughout the semester, we used the group section in the Forum on Sakai to discuss and determine any minor details about our project and survey. Our group used time before, during, or after our traditional classes to converse on major decisions. We discussed potential survey topics; confirmed ideas discussed in person, and encouraged each other as the weeks progressed. The materials used to collect data were an online survey through Survey Monkey. The survey consisted of 8 quantitative questions and 2 qualitative questions regarding note-taking methods. The questions addressed different aspects of preferences regarding taking lecture notes by hand or with some form of technology. The response alternatives used was a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The participants were given a two-week window to complete the survey as the researchers tracked the progress of data collected.

Method :

Method Procedure The researchers obtained participants via a sign-up sheet from two of our classes, asking our fellow classmates to provide their email address if interested in participating in a survey. Later, a group meeting was held at the Orange County Regional Center where each group member contributed questions to create our survey. After all members agreed on the final 10 survey questions, an email was sent to the OIRA representative, Reyna Guzman, for approval including our research design and purpose. Our survey received approval and one designated group member began to create the survey on Survey Monkey. She inputted the 10 agreed upon statements and answer ranges. We were all provided with the username and password so that any group member can check the progress of our results. The heading from the OIRA was included with the link to our survey. We sent an email to all those who wished to participate. We frequently checked the account to see how many people actually took the survey we sent them. At a later date and time, we decided to sit down as a group and look over the results and responses from the 14 participants of the survey.

Results :

Results The results of this survey show that graduate students prefer taking lecture notes by hand. The survey was comprised of eight quantitative and two qualitative questions. All 14 participants completed the survey items (see Table 1). The data on this survey reveal note taking by hand was preferred because it served studying purposes.

Results Table 1:

Results Table 1

Results Table 1 (continued):

Results Table 1 (continued)

Results :

Results Figure 1 reflects question one on the survey, “ I prefer to take lecture notes during class using paper and pen. Out of 14 respondents, 57% reported strongly agreeing to the use of paper and pen for notes, 29% agreed, and 14% reporting they disagreed (M=4.29, SD=1.07). The findings in this question were supported by survey item six and eight. The data showed that respondents preferred hand writing their notes instead of typing because it helped retention of lecture information (86% agreed/strongly agreed) and it helped prepare them for an exam (86% agreed/strongly agree).

Results Figure 1:

Results Figure 1

Results :

Results Although the researchers hypothesis was not supported by the overall data, it is interesting to note Figure 2. It reflects question four, “ taking notes using technology (laptop, ipad, etc.) helps me retain information ” and it shows that 36% respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed, 21 % agreed or strongly agreed, while 43% neither agreed or disagreed (M=2.64, SD=1.28). This survey item turned out inconclusive because the larger number of respondents did not have an opinion confirming or disconfirming whether typing information helped with retention. Further research questions would be followed in the future to clarify this survey item and determine whether it does or does not support the research hypothesis. It has the potential to bring new insights and direction of this research hypothesis. Researchers would further explore a response provided by a participant in one of the open-ended questions that expressed, “ professors might not want the computer to be used in class. ”

Results Figure 2:

Results Figure 2

Results :

Results One qualitative question in this survey looked at advantages and disadvantages of typing lecture notes. Respondents identified advantages as: typing faster, being able to easily edit, revise, and format, and keeping notes organized (neat, outline form). To add, one responded stated, “ When I type my notes outline form…it helps study for exams. ” The identified disadvantages were: blindly typing information does not help retention, the computer can be a distraction (i.e. formatting, typing slow, internet), typing disengages one from class.

Results:

Results The second qualitative question sought to determine whether participants change their note taking style (hand written vs. typed) based on course expectations. The majority of the respondents (64%) stated that they would not change their note taking techniques. These nine participants reported they preferred hand written notes and it would stay the same regardless of the class because it helps them focus on the material, retain it, and get prepared for exams. The rest of the participants (36%) reported they would change their note taking technique to typing when a class has an abundance of information to write down. They identified that they can type faster than they can write. Overall, the data gathered in the quantitative and qualitative questions of this survey were consistent, the majority of the participants in this study preferred taking notes by hand. Therefore, our survey data did not support our research hypothesis that graduate students prefer typing notes for information retention.

Discussion:

Discussion The present study integrated and expanded on study methods utilized by graduate students. The hypothesis stated that graduate students prefer taking notes by computer rather than by hand. The results did not support the initial prediction. The participants ’ responses demonstrate that pen and paper are more preferred than computer to take notes. Our study focused on learning if using technology was a distraction while note taking during class, best means of feeling prepared for examinations, and if speed of typing impacted the learning process. In regards to preparation for tests, perhaps writing helps students retain information during class and physically writing the notes can be a vital study tool. There is a possibility for students to type the notes after class as an additional way of studying and remembering the information discussed. Although the study did not analyze this component, students that do not type fast may be less encouraged to use computer for note taking. It is also likely that students at the graduate level may have a different outlook on education because of the expenses and stage of education that influences choice of using technology for leisure or necessity.

Discussion:

Discussion The adequacy of the study is minimal since the questions pose as simple aspects of the note taking experience for graduate students. There are several other components involved that may impact note taking choice such as willingness to take a laptop to class every day, preference to maintain traditional means of learning in the classroom, or learning deficiencies. Utilizing quantitative and qualitative questions are good means of conducting research, but ten may be insufficient to make this study more appropriate of the subject manner being inquired further on. Other factors that impact this study is the amount of information students takes in each class, the speed of the material provided, and quantity of classes taken each day school is attended.

Discussion:

Discussion When taking these components into consideration, this study is not general for the topic since less than twenty graduate students from the same university participated in the survey. Providing the survey to graduate students from different universities, various programs, and across the nation may provide accurate results of the note taking process since diversity will be more prevalent. Random selection was not utilized when choosing participants, which limits the study. Age, cultural background, year in the masters program, or psychosocial stressors is not taken into consideration that may impact how each participant answers the questions.

Discussion:

Discussion The relevance of the data gather places insight to the means of graduate students taking notes since it appears from this study that although we live in a technology driven society, traditional ways of learning are still used today. Although technology is used in different forms, the results demonstrate that students manage distractions in order to focus on the academic process.   This study provided general information about preference techniques from graduate students when note taking. Further research in this area is needed so that the adequacy of the findings can be generalized amongst other students and schools as well. Providing more quantitative questions gearing towards other variables impacting note-taking preference can provide details why this phenomenon occurs. Looking further into socioeconomic status, time of the academic year the survey is provided, and the abundance of material covered in classes should also be considered. Identifying if the subject matter of the class impacts decision making of taking notes can also be influential in understanding results better.

References:

References Bui, D.C., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2012). Note-taking with computers: Exploring alternative strategies for improved recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (2), 299-309. Dubois, N.F., Christian, D., McShane, A. (1988). Providing study notes: Comparison of three types of notes for review. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80( 4), 595-597. Gay, G., Stefanone, M., Grace-Martin, M., & Hembrooke, H. (2001). The effects of wireless computing in collaborative learning environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (2), 257-276. Grabe, M., Christopherson, K. (2008). Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24 , 1-10. Kiewra, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Christensen, M., Kim, S., Risch, N. (1991). Effects of repetition on recall and note-taking: Strategies for learning from lectures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83 (1), 120-123. Meer, J. (2012). Students ’ note-taking challenges in the twenty-first century: considerations for teachers and academic staff developers. Teacher in Higher Edcuation, 17 (1), 13-23. Odhabi, H. (2007). Investigating the impact of laptops on students ’ learning using bloom ’ s learning taxonomy. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38 (6), 1126-1131. Tamas, M., Kemp, J., Dror, I.E. (2009). Optimising the use of note-taking as an external cognitive aid for increasing learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (4), 619-635. Schoen, I. (2012). Effects of method and context of note-taking on memory: Handwriting versus typing in lecture and textbook-reading contexts. Pitzer Senior Theses . Paper 20. Van Meter, P., Yokoi, L., Pressley, M. (1994). College students ’ theory of note-taking derived from their perceptions of note-taking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (3) 323-338. Ward, N., Tatsukawa, H. (2003). A tool for taking class notes. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59 (6), 959-981. Yamaguchi, M., Logan, G.D. (2014). Pushing typists back on the learning curve: Revealing chunking in skilled typewriting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40( 2), 592-612.