grammar book

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Grammar book:

Grammar book Nicolás Hutchinson

table of contents:

table of contents 1. Nationalities 2. Stem-Changing Verbs (all 4 classes) 3. Para 4. Adjectives 5. Object Pronoun Placement 6. DOP (Direct Object Pronoun) 7. IOP (Indirect Object Pronouns) 8. ser vs. estar (all in one page) 9. -ísimo(a), and g/c/z 10. Verbs like gustar 11. Affirmative and Negative Words 12. pero vs. sino 13. DOP/IOP/SE 14. Reflexive verbs 15. Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars 16. los adverbios-mente 17. deber + other modal verbs 18. past participles as adjectives 19. preterite 20. present progressive

nacionalidades :

nacionalidades mexicano/a guatemalteco/a salvadoreño/a nicaragüense costarricense panameño/a cubano/a dominicano/a puertorriqueño/a venezolano/a colombiano/a ecuatoriano/a peruano/a paraguayo/a boliviano/a chileno/a argentino/a uruguayo/a español/a guineano/a canadiense estadounidense norteamericano/a italiano/a francés/a inglés/a latino/a hispano/a

Stem Changing Verbs:

Stem Changing Verbs o:ue acuesta (to go to bed) e:ie despierta (to wake up) e:i repito (to repeat)


para para is spanish for “for”


adjectives If adjectives end in an “e” or vowel you add “s” ie: Alto → Altos If Adjective ends in a consonant add “es” ie: Popular → Populares If nationality is referred to a nationality it must match. ie: las muchachas venezolana los muchachos venezolano

direct object pronouns:

direct object pronouns answer the question “what is being verbed?”

indirect object pronouns:

indirect object pronouns answers the question to whom or for whom. me to me te to you se to him/her nos to us os to y’all se to them

pronoun placement:

pronoun placement attach the pronoun to the infinitive attach the pronoun to a progressive tense attach the pronoun to an affirmative command place the pronoun before a conjugated verb

ser and estar:

ser and estar ser is used for time, place, origin, or occupation. estar is used for location, state, condition or progressive tense

Isimo and g/c/z :

Isimo and g/c/z Adding isimo is the extreme of the adjective. To add isimo remove final vowel and add isimo C -> Qu rico -> riquisimo G -> Gu Largo -> Larguisimo z -> C Feliz-> Felicisimo

Verbs like gustar:

Verbs like gustar Instead of using gustar, you use Gusta when it is singular, and gustan when it is plural. there are other verbs that are similar such as encantar, interesar, importar ect.

Affirmative and Negative words:

Affirmative and Negative words Affirmative: alguno (any) siempre (always) también ( also) algún (some) algo (something) alguien (someone) Negative: nada : (nothing) nunca (never) nadie ( no-one) ningún ( anything) tampoco (nor) To make a sentence Negative add a “No” before the verb. Ex: Ella Habla Inglés→ Ella no habla inglés. When the answer to a question is negative, it requires two negatives. Hablo Ud. Espanol? No. No hablo Espanol

Pero vs Sino:

Pero vs Sino Pero and sino are used for the word “but”. Pero is used to join two contrasting ideas when the second does not negate the first. Sino us used when the second sentence negates or connects the first.

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs Used when the subject and object are the same

PowerPoint Presentation:

Affirmative Negative Irregular AR verbs: Add the 3rd person singular ending -a to the stem -ER verbs: Add the 3rd person singular ending -e to the stem (Aprender) ¡ Aprende español! (Learn Spanish!) -IR verbs: Add the 3rd person singular ending -e to the stem (Escribir) ¡ Escribe el ensayo! (Write the essay!) Make sure to have a no or negative in front of the verb. Haz Ve Pon Sal Se Ten Ven Tu Commands Affirmative, Irregular, and Negative .

Los Adverbios-mente:

Los Adverbios-mente Most Spanish Adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective corresponds to -ly in English When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one takes the -mente Adverb is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. Adjective Feminine Form Adverb Meaning Claro Constante Dificil Perfecto Alegre Clara Perfecta Alegremente Claramente Constantemente Dificilmente Perfectamente Alegremente Clear Constant Difficult Perfect Cheerful

modal verbs:

modal verbs when verbs are used in modal verb combinations the 2nd verb is not conjugated but rather left in the infinitive form you would never say “no puedo nado” desear= to need poder = to be able to

past prarticiples as adjectives:

past prarticiples as adjectives drop -ar ending and add -ado drop -er or -ir ending and add -ido Examples: la puerta está cerrada. -the door is closed El restaurante está abierto -The restaurant is open.

el preterito:

el preterito a definite time in the past has a beginning and/or ending las expressiones para el uso (trigger words) ayer, anoche -ar verbs -er verbs ir verbs -é -amos -í -imos -aste -asteís -iste -isteís ó aron -ió -ieron

present progressive:

present progressive the present progressive is only used to describe an action that is in the process of taking place. it is not stem changing E→ I (pedir -> pidiendo) when the stem of an -er or -ir verb ends in a vowel, change the -iendo to -yendo to form the present participle. add an accent when you attach a pronoun


citations senora linares’ notes