Grammar Book hsp2

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Grammar Book:

Grammar Book By: Natalia Myers 1 st period

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Nationalities Stem Changing Para Adjectives Object Pronoun Placement Direct Object Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns Ser vs. estar (all in one page) - ísimo (a ), and g/c/z Verbs like gustar Verbs like gustar Affirmative and Negative Words pero vs. sino DOP/IOP/SE Reflexive verbs Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars los adverbios-mente deber + other modal verbs past participles as adjectives Preterite Present Progressive verbs

PowerPoint Presentation:

México y la América Central Mexico -Mexicano *Mexico D.F. Guatemala- Guatemalteco *Guatemala El Salvador- Salvadoreño *San Salvador Costa Rica- Costarricnese *San Jose Honduras- Hondureño *Tegucigalpa Nicaragua- Nicaragüese *Managua Panama- Panameño *Panama La America del sur Colombia- Colombiano *Bogota Ecuador- Ecuadorano *Quito Venezuela- Venezolano *Caracas Peru- Peruano *Lima Bolivia- Boliviano *Lapaz Chile- Chileno *Santiago Paraguay- Paraguayo *Lima Uruguay- Uruguayo *Montevideo Argentina- Argentino *Buenos Aides El Caribe/ España Cuba- Cubano *La Habana Dominican Republic- Dominicano *Santo Domingo Puerto Rico- Puertorriqueño *San Jose Más Nacionalidades Spain- Español *Madrid Guinea Equatorial- Guineano * Malabo America- Estadounidense Canada- Canadiense N. America- Norteamericano Italian- Italiano France- Francés England- Inglés Latino/Hispano NACIONALIDADES

PowerPoint Presentation:

STEM CHANGING VERS O - UE U – UE E - IE E – I Verb: Pensar Yo Pienso Tú Piensas Él /Ella/Utd. Piensa Nos. Pensamos Vos . Pensaís Ellos/Ellas/Utds. Piensan Verb: Costar Yo Cuesto Tú Cuestas Él/Ella/ Utd. Cuesta Nos. C ostamos Vos. Costaís Ellos/ Ellas / Utds . Cuestan Verb: Jugar Yo Juego Tú Juegas Él /Ella/ Utd. Juega Nos. Jugamos Vos. Jugaís Ellos/ Ellas/ Utds. Juegan Verb: Pedir Yo Pido Tú Pides Él/Ella/ Utd. Pide Nos. Pedimos Vos. Pedeís Ellos /Ellas/ Udts. Piden

PowerPoint Presentation:

PARA For/ In order to Key Facts Para- (For- In order to) To propose a goal recipient of something. Usually goes right before infinitive.

PowerPoint Presentation:

ADJECTIVOS Key Facts Possessive adjectives agree with the nouns they modify. That is, they agree with the thing possessed, not possessed. If adjective refers to nationality it must match. If the adjective is ending in “z” it must end in “ ces ” If the adjective ends in a vowel add “S”. – Negros If an adjective ends in a consonant add “ es ”. – Azules Possessive Adjectives

PowerPoint Presentation:

OBJECT PRONOUNS Key Facts When you only have one conjugated verb, the object pronoun(s) must be placed directly before the verb. If the sentence is negative, the object pronouns are still placed directly before the verb after the word no.

PowerPoint Presentation:

DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS DOP = What? Me Te Lo/La Nos Os Los/Las Key Facts Direct Object pronouns are placed directly before the conjugated verb. When an infinitive follows the verb, direct object pronouns are placed before the conjugated verb and/or attached to the infinitive. Direct Object pronouns attach the affirmative command.

PowerPoint Presentation:

INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS IOP = Who? Me Nos Te Os Le Les Key Facts IOPs are pronouns that replace or accompany indirect objects. Indirect object pronouns use the same words as direct object pronouns except for le and les.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ser vs. Estar Yo: Tú: Él, ella,utd .: Nos.: Vos .: Ellos, ellas , utds .: To Be Key Facts Both mean “To be”. Ser is meant for the permanent sense.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Affirmative And Negative Words Key Facts When you want to talk about an indefinite situation, you use an affirmative or negative word. Alguno (a) and ninguno (a) must match the gender of the noun they replace to modify. Alguno and ninguno have different forms when used before masculine singular nouns. If a verb is preceded bu no, words that follow must be negative. A double negative is required in Spanish when no precedes the verb If a negative word, such as nunca or nadie , comes before the verb, a second negative is not required .

PowerPoint Presentation:

- Isimo (a) Key Facts In general, there are three ways to compare nouns: The comparison of equality (as...as), the comparison of inequality (more/less than), and the superlative (the most/least). This reference describes the last form of the comparisons, superlatives, how to form it, and when to use it. Superlatives indicate the maximum amount of an adjective, usually described as "the most" or "the least" of something. To form the superlative in Spanish, you will use a formula very similar to that of comparisons of inequality except that you will use the definite article.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Verbs Like Gustar Singular Plural Gustar = To like/ be pleasing to Aburir = To bore Encantar = To love Faltar = To lack Fascinar = To Fascinate Importar = To be important to Interesar = To be interesting Molestar = To bother Quedar = To be left over Quesar = To fit Gusto = Past tense- was pleasing A + prounoun (mi, ti , nos ) = adds emphasis to who was pleased

PowerPoint Presentation:

Pero Vs. Sino Key Facts Both pero and sino are coordinating conjunctions (connecting two words or phrases of similar grammatical status) meaning "but." As such, both pero and sino can be used to contrast two words, sntences or phrases .

PowerPoint Presentation:

DOP/ IOP/ SE Key Facts When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first. The reason for changing "le lo" to "se lo" is to avoid the tongue-twisting effect of two short consecutive words that begin with the letter "l". In negative sentences, the negative word comes directly before the first pronoun .

PowerPoint Presentation:

REFLEXIVE VERBS Describing actions that involve oneself Key Facts Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb. When you use the infinitive form of the reflexive verb after a conjugated verb, use the correct reflexive pronoun. You can also use put the reflexive pronoun in front of the conjugated verb Examples Me lavo Quiero lavantarme Te lavas Me quiero lavantar Se lava Nos lavamos Os lavais Se lavan

PowerPoint Presentation:

Tu Commands: Affirmative/ Negative/ Irregulars Affirmative Tu Commands Give instructions or commands to someone by using the Affirmative tu commands of regular verbs. It is a tu command, but ends like a 3 rd house form. Examples Cominar ! Comina ! ! Comina en el parque ! Comer !Come! !Come toda la almuerzo ! Abrir ! Abre ! ! Abre la puerta , quierp entrar ! Irregular Affirmative Tu Commands Infinitive Affirmative tu Command Decir di Hacer haz Ir ve Poner pon Salir sal Ser se‘ Tener ten Venir ven Key facts Remember that when you use a pronoun with an affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the command. They attach to object pronouns: ! Cru’zalo ! Negative Tu Commands When you tell someone not what to do. Negative Tu commands are formed by taking the you form on the present tense. Dropping the –o, and adding the appropriate ending . Examples Hablar hablo !no hables ! Volver volvo !no vuelveas ! Irregular Negative Tu Commands A few verbs have irregular negative tu commands. Notice that none of the yo forms of those verbs end in –o. Object pronouns precede the verb: !No lo uses! Irreg. Negative T u Commands Dar doy No des Estar estoy No esta’s Ir voy No Vayas Ser soy No seas

PowerPoint Presentation:

Los Adverbios - Mente - m ente = “ ly ” Key Facts *To make adverb, use feminine form Claro- Claramente . *2 adverbs? Only 2 nd uses “ mente ” ***Used to describe how something is done. Irregular no “ mente ” Mucho Nunca Muy Poco Mal Deor Batamente Siempre Bien Demasiado Ya Tan

PowerPoint Presentation:

Deber + Other Modal Verbs Deber : Should Yo : Debo Tu : Debes El, Ella, Utd : Debe Nos : Debamos Vos : Debais Ellos,ellas,Utds : Deben Key Facts Modal Verb + Infinitive 2 nd Verb is NOT conjugated Infintive is left as is NEVER say “No Puedo Nado ” Other Verbs Desear - To need Poder - To be able to Quere - To want

PowerPoint Presentation:

Preterite Ar :  Hable Hablaste Hablo Hablamos Hablasteis hablaron Er / Ir :  Comi Comiste Comio Comimos Comisteis Comieron Past Tense Trigger Words Ayer A noche El ano Pasado Le semana Ante

PowerPoint Presentation:

Present Progressives Key Facts Use a present progressive to describe actions in motion. When you use pronouns with the present progressive, you can put them in one of the two places. Put the pronoun before the conjugated form of estar or attach them to the end of the present participle. Estar + “ ing ” verb Ar = ando Ir = iendo irr / er = yendo No future actions. Accent 3 rd vowel from the last. Add “ yendo ” when you have 3 vowels.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Works Cited http:// www.studyspanish.com/lessons/pret1.htm http :// www.spanish.bz/modal-verbs.htm https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVc6AYK2ipk https://www.letslearnspanish.co.uk/author/ines-fernandez / http:// www.spanish.bz/gustar.htm http:// www.oncoursesystems.com/school/webpage/492422 http:// profespangler8.weebly.com/present-progressive.html http :// www.lingolex.com/swom/wom-porpara.htm http :// www.studyspanish.com/lessons/dopro1.htm http:// felds-spanish.blogspot.com/2013/03/capitulo-5-continues.html http:// www.studyspanish.com/lessons/iopro1.htm http:// www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/52 http :// spanish.about.com/od/conjunctions/a/sino_pero.htm http://www.elinqua.com/pero-and-sino-how-to-say-but-in-spanish /