Greek Geographer

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Gondia Education Society's C.J. Patel College, Tirora , Dist.- Gondia 441911. Subject : THEOROTICAL AND APPLIED GEOGRAPHY Topic Eratosthenes Is presented by Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar M.A., B.Ed., SET, NET, Ph.D., M.B.A . Head, Department of Geography C.J . Patel College Tirora .


GREEKS INTRODUCTION:- The Greeks were pioneers in many branches of knowledge. Their period is known as the ‘Golden Age of Greece’. They borrowed many of the concepts of astronomy, geometry and mathematics from the Egyptians, Chaldaeans and Assyrians. The geographical knowledge in the earliest ages was, however, limited to the countries and Island s adjacent to Greece, and to the group of nations, surrounding the Aegean Sea. The Greeks possessed philosophical and scientific aptitude versatility of intellect, inquisitive nature and comprehensiveness of mind. The location of Greece, situated on both sides of the Aegean Sea, was also conducive to geographical study. The great diversity in its topography and physical features provided great impetus to the growth and development of geography. In fact, Greece is a hilly and undulating country.


Homer Thales of Miletus Anaximander Herodotus (485-425 B.C.) Alexander Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.) Hipparchus Posidonius


Eratosthenes (276-294 B.C.)


(276-194 B.C)


Eratosthenes Born: 276 BC Birthplace: Cyrene, Libya Died: 194 BC Location of death: Alexandria, Egypt Cause of death: Starvation Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Mathematician , Scholar , Astronomer Nationality: Ancient Greece Executive summary: First to measure the Earth


ERATOSTHENES (276-194 B.C) 1) Eratosthenes may be regarded as the first scientific geographer who as certained the length of equator with remarkable precision. He also developed the systems of co-ordinates for the world, i.e. latitudes and longitudes. 2) This made it possible for him to draw the firs passably accurate map on sound principles. He was well acquainted with the astronomical knowledge of his period. 3) Eratosthenes was born in the Greek colony, Cyrene (Libya), in 276 B.C. He got his education at Cyrene and then at Athens. From Athens he was invited by the ruler of Egypt, Ptolemy Euegetes, and appointed chief librarian of Alexandria. 4) During his tenure as librarian, he wrote several scientific and literary books. The subject of geography a systematic form and tried to construct the world map on more scientific principles. 5) About the problems of shape, size, position and spherocity of the earth, Eratosthenes adopted the views of Aristotle and Euclid and regarded the earth as a sphere, placed in the centre of the universe, round which the celestial spheres revolved every twenty-four hours.


6) Using the obelisk as a gnomon, Eratosthenes measured the length of the shadow at the solstice. He was thus able to measure the angle between the vertical obelisk and the rays the sun. 7) Eratosthenes, therefore, concluded that the whole earth was about 25,000 miles in circumference (actually the circumference measured through the poles in 24,860 miles.) 7)Eratosthenes also attempted to determine the distance of the sun and moon from the earth. He computed the distance of the moon at 7,80,000 stadia (78,000miles) and that of the sun 4,000,000 stadia (400,000miles).


8 ) Eratosthenes possessed fairly accurate knowledge of the shores of Spain and Gaul that border the Mediterranean but his information of the rest of North-West European countries was very imperfect. 9) The book written by Eratosthenes describes, the ekumene the inhabited earth in which he accepted both the major divisions of Europe, Asia and Libya(Africa), and five climatic zones i.e. a torrid zone, two temperate, and two frigid zones.


REFERENCE BOOK:- Evolution of Geographical Thought Majid Husain Enter-net



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