PMC chap 2


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Chapter 2:

Chapter 2 LAYOUT

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A plant is a place where men, machines, material, equipment, etc. are brought together for the purpose of manufacturing products. A plant lay out is the arrangement of machines with in factory, so that each operation is performed at the point of greatest convenience.

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Plant location involves two major activities. To prepare a proper geographical region 2. Selecting a specific site within the region

Factors to be considered in a plant location (selection):

Factors to be considered in a plant location (selection) (1) Nearness to raw materials (2) Nearness to markets (3) Transport facilities (4) Availability of fuel and power (5) Availability of Labour

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(6) Availability of water (7) Climatic and Atmospheric Condition (8) Financial and other Aids (9) Attitude of the community (10) Other factors

(1) Nearness to raw materials :

(1) Nearness to raw materials If the raw materials are bulky and heavy, it becomes essential to locate the plant near to it. It can be seen that many steel industries in Bihar and Orissa are close to raw material.

(2) Nearness to markets :

(2) Nearness to markets It reduced the cost of transportation and also the chances of finished product getting damaged or spoiled on the way. It can also render quick after sales service to customers. Some of the plastic and textile industries located near to Bombay and Ahmadabad are example.

(3) Transport facilities :

(3) Transport facilities Transportation cost of raw material play a vital role when it is bulky and heavy depending on the size of raw material, finished goods, made of transportation like road, rail, water or air is selected. There is no use of locating the plant, when it is not connected by proper roads.

(4) Availability of fuel and power :

(4) Availability of fuel and power Industries need power for manufacturing. Entrepreneurs are encouraged to invest or venture in to enterprises, if the state is rich in power and could be obtained without much government interference. Easy availability of fuel and power is important for any firm.

(5) Availability of Labour :

(5) Availability of Labour Industries need skilled, semiskilled unskilled labour for the production and other needs. The labour cost in that particular area should be reasonable and stabilised labour force should be available. E.g.:- Textile and cotton industries near to Tiruppur in Tamil Nadu

(6) Availability of water :

(6) Availability of water All factories need soft and pure water. Water is used for processing as in paper and chemical industries and is also required for drinking and sanitary purpose . It should be available in adequate quantity and quality, depending on the nature of the industry.

(7) Climatic and Atmospheric Condition :

(7) Climatic and Atmospheric Condition It is a governing factor for several industries, as cotton industry need humid climate. Most of the textile are located near costal region. But development of air conditioning process control of climate does not present much problem.

(8) Financial and other aids :

(8) Financial and other aids To encourage the growth of industries in certain backward region, so that it increases the prosperity of the local population, certain state government offer cash incentive, invest free loans, build-up sheds at lower or concession rates.

(9) Attitude of the community :

(9) Attitude of the community Good mentality of the people in the community is an important factor governing the site selection of a factory. Some people living around the area will get a feeling that starting new industries will bring ecological imbalance.

(10) Other factors :

(10) Other factors tax regulation fire protection, presence of schools and banks post and telegraph facilities housing facilities security facilities for future expansion

Plant Location examples:

Plant Location examples Manufacturing Plant Location Aircraft Plant Location

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An ideal plant location is one, which results in lowest production cost and least distribution cost per unit. The various costs, which decide the locational economy are, Land Building/rent Equipment and machinery Labour Water, power and fuel Freight (incoming and outgoing) Raw material Taxes etc.

Main objectives of scientific layout :

Main objectives of scientific layout (1) To produce better quality product. (2) Maximum utilizations of floor area. (3) Material handling and internal transportation is reduced from one operation to the next, as much as possible. (4) Working condition like lighting, ventilating etc are better and safer. (5) Wastages are kept to minimum so that the cost of scrap and wastages are the least.

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(6) Waiting time for semi-finished products and production delay are kept minimum. (7) Good layout supports future expansion. (8) Machines, equipments and person should be safeguarded against any untoward incident or accident by observing proper safety precautions. (9) Worker and executive should have better working conditions. (10) Movement of workers is kept minimum. (11) To increase productivity. (12) To provide easy supervision.

Principles of plant layout :

Principles of plant layout 1.Principle of overall integration:- According to this principle, the best layout is one which integrates men, material, machines, supporting activities in logical and balanced manner. 2.Principle of minimum distance:- According to this principle, the best layout is one, in which man and material have to move the minimum required distance between operations.

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3.Principle of flow:- According to this principle, the best layout is one which arranges work area for each operation or process in the same order sequence that forms or assembled the products. 4. Principles of cubic space:- According to this principles, the best layout is one, in which all the available space both vertical and horizontal is more economically used.

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5.Principles of satisfaction and safety:- According this principle, the best layout is one, which makes work satisfying, pleasant and safer for workers. Working places should be safe, well ventilated and free from dust, noise, fumes, and other hazardous condition, so that it increases the moral and efficiency of the workers.

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6. Principles of flexibility: - According to this, the best layout is one, which can be adopted and rearranged at a minimum cost least convenience. This principle is more useful for automobile or electronic industries, where model or brands of products are likely to change with advancement of technology.

Considerations in building design:

Considerations in building design Nature of manufacturing process Flexibility Expandability or future expansion Service facilities Employee facilities Lighting Heating Ventilating Air-conditioning

Factory layout (Plant layout):

Factory layout (Plant layout) Factory layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of the finished product.

Plant layout:

Plant layout Plant layout is the physical arrangement of industrial facilities. It involves the allocation of space & the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized. D D D D G G G G G G M M M M M M A A A A L L L L L L L L

Factors affecting plant layout:

Factors affecting plant layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Materials Machinery Labor Material Handling Waiting Time Auxiliary Services The building Future Changes

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Plant Layouts

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Drilling shop -Layout Polishing shop-Layout

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Assembly shop -Layout Paint shop -Layout

Types of plant layout:

Types of plant layout 1. Product layout (line layout) 2. Process layout (functional layout) 3. Combination layout (hybrid layout/group layout) 4. Fixed Position layout (stationary layout)

Product layout- :

Product layout - Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow. Here machines are arranged according to the needs of product & in the same sequence as the operations are necessary for manufacture.

Product Layout:

Raw materials or customer Finished item Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 Material and/or labor Station 1 Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Used for Repetitive or Continuous Processing Product Layout

U-Shaped Production Line (Product layout):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 In Out OPERATORS U-Shaped Production Line (Product layout)

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IN OUT S-Shaped Production Line (Product layout)

Advantages of Product Layout:

High rate of output Low unit cost Labor specialization Low material handling cost High utilization of labor and equipment Established routing and scheduling Short processing time Advantages of Product Layout

Disadvantages of Product Layout:

Creates dull, repetitive jobs Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output Fairly inflexible to changes in volume Highly susceptible to shutdowns Needs preventive maintenance Require large capital investment Disadvantages of Product Layout

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Process layout- Layout that can handle varied processing requirements Here all machines performing similar type of operations are grouped together at one location in the process layout. Thus here facilities are grouped together acc. To their functions. E.g. all drilling machines are located at one place known as drilling section.

Process Layout:

Process Layout - work travels to dedicated process centers Milling Assembly & Test Grinding Drilling Plating Process Layout

Manufacturing - Process Layout:

Manufacturing - Process Layout L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G P P A A A Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department

Process layout:

Process layout

Advantages of Process Layouts:

Can handle a variety of processing requirements Machines breakdown doesn’t result in shutdown. Equipment used is less costly. Wide flexibility in production facilities. Each production unit of system works independently. High utilization of facilities. Advantages of Process Layouts

Disadvantages of Process Layouts:

In-process inventory costs can be high Challenging routing and scheduling Equipment utilization rates are low Material handling is slow and inefficient & is more. More space is required Longer processing time Back tracking may occur. Disadvantages of Process Layouts

Combination layout :

Combination layout A combination layout is possible, where an item is being made in different types and sizes. A combination of process and product layout combines the advantage of both types of layouts. Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout is followed.

Combination layout :

Combination layout

Fixed position Layout:

Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, whereas workers, materials, and equipments are moved as needed. The product, because of its size and/or weight, remains in one location and processes are brought to it. E.g. construction of DAMS. ISRO Helicopter and aircrafts Nuclear engineering division of BHEL Ship building Fixed position Layout

Fixed position Layout:

Fixed position Layout

Fixed position Layout:

Fixed position Layout

Advantages of Fixed Layouts:

Advantages of Fixed Layouts

Disadvantages of Fixed Layouts:

Disadvantages of Fixed Layouts

Flow patterns:

Flow patterns The pattern of flow of materials in an industry is called flow patterns; a good layout aims at minimizing flow of materials. The principle of minimum movements reduces the material handling. Material flow system can be classified on the availability of floor space as Horizontal flow system (floor area) Vertical flow system (multi-storey)

Types of flow patterns:

Types of flow patterns

Flow patterns in multi-storey buildings:

Flow patterns in multi-storey buildings

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