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Tablet Coating Tablet coatings perform one or more of the following functions. They may: mask the taste of unpalatable drugs, protect the drug from deterioration due to light, oxygen or moisture, separate incompatible ingredients, control the release of medicament in the gastrointestinal tract, and provide an elegant or distinctive finish to the tablet. The materials used for coating may largely comprise sucrose (sugar coating), water-soluble film-forming polymers (film coating) or substances which are soluble in the intestinal secretions but not in those of the stomach (enteric coating). These types of coating can all be applied by the pan or fluid-bed processes; the compression coating technique is suitable for sugar and enteric coatings, but not for film coating.

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Types of Coating Different coating processes are: Pan coating, Fluid Bed Coating, Compression coating Pan Coating

Tablet Coating Process : 

Tablet Coating Process Final production step on which quality of product may be judged Sugar Coating Steps involves, Sealing, Subcoating Syruping (Smooting) Finishing Polishing

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1. Seal coating To prevent moisture penetration into tablet core Specially in pan-ladling process in which localized overwetting of portion of tablet bed occur Shellac Affects disintegration and dissolution time due to polymerization on aging Zein Such effect is not reported 2. Subcoating To round the edges and build up size . Subcoating Steps Sticky binder solution Dusting of subcoating powders Drying

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3. Syrup (Smoothing/ color) coating To cover and fill in the imperfections in tablet surface caused by subcoating To impart desired color First syrup coat contains some suspended powders i.e. grossing syrups Dilute colorants– tinted base– uniform coating Syrup solution containing dye applied until final size and color are achieved 4. Finishing Final syrup coating step Few clear coats of syrup may be applied 5. Polishing Desired luster is obtained in this final step Clean standard coating pan, canvas-lined coating pans Application of powdered wax or warm solution of waxes in suitable volatile solvent

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Film Coating Film coating and sugar coating shares the same equipments and process parameters Two methods, Pan-Pour method Same as that of pan-pour sugar coating Method is relatively slow and relies heavily on skill and technique of operator Aqueous based film coating is not suitable due to localized over-wetting 2) Pan-Spray method Use of automated spraying system

Coating equipments : 

Coating equipments Three types of equipments The standard coating pan The perforated coating pan The fluidized bed (Air suspension) coater. These systems based on three basic designs 1. Conventional pan system Depending on drying efficiency Pellegrini system Immersion-sword system Immersion –tube system 2. Perforated pan system Accela-coata Hi-coater systems Driacoater Glatt coater 3. Fluidized bed (Air suspension) system

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Convensional pan: 8-60 inches diameter revolving on its horizontal axis. Heated air is directed into the pan and onto the tablet bed surface. Exhausted by means of ducts positioned through the front of the pan Drying efficiency is achieved by, Pellegrini pan: Has a baffled pan and diffuser for uniform distribution of drying air. Enclosed and automated.

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2. Immersion-sword system Drying air through perforated metal sword immersed in the tablet bed. Upward flow through bed. Spray onto the bed surface 3. Immersion-tube system Tube immersed in tablet bed Delivers heated air and coating solution through spray built in the tip of tube Flows upward and exhausted by a conventional duct

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Perforated pan system: Perforated drum rotates on its horizontal axis in an enclosed housing. Accela-Coata and Hi-coater system: Drying air is directed in to drum, is passed through bed, and is exhausted through perforations in to drum.

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Driacoater: Introduces drying air through hollow perforated ribs located inside periphery of the drum. With rotating pan, ribs dip into bed Drying air passes up through and fluidizes bed Exhaust is from back of the pan Glatt coater: Drying air directed from inside the drum through bed and out an exhaust duct With an optional split-chambered plenum drying air can be directed in the reverse manner Several air flow configurations are possible.

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3. Fluidized bed (Air suspension system) Highly efficient Fluidization of tablet bed is achieved in a columnar chamber by the upward flow of drying air.

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B. Fluid-Bed Coating

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Compression Coating Machines

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Hi-coater system: The drying air is directed into the drum is passed through the tablet bed, and is exhausted through the perforations in the drum.

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SUPERCELL™ Tablet Coater Revolutionary tablet coater that accurately deposits controlled amounts of coating materials on tablets, even if they are extremely hygroscopic or friable.

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Problems in tableting 1 Capping 2 Lamination / Laminating 3 Chipping 4 Cracking 5 Sticking / Filming 6 Picking 7 Mottling 8 Double impression

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1 Blistering 2 Chipping 3 Cratering 4 Picking 5 Pitting 6 Blooming 7Colour variation 8 Infilling 9 Orange peel/Roughness 10 Cracking/Splitting Problems and remedies for tablet coating



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