MCS 12 Satellite Systems


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Canadian Programmes: 

Canadian Programmes MCS xx Maj JW Paul Winter2004 Satellite Technology

Tell a man there are 300 billion stars in the universe, and he will believe you.: 

Tell a man there are 300 billion stars in the universe, and he will believe you. Tell him the bench has wet paint, and he will have to touch it to be sure.

GPS Review: 

GPS Review Why are 4 satellites required for a fix? Why is P code better than C/A? Two sources for GPS errors? Limitations of GPS? What is the principle of DGPS?

Today’s Lecture: 

Today’s Lecture Classification Organizations & Projects Systems

Satcom Classification: 

Satcom Classification

SATCOM Classifications: 

SATCOM Classifications By Level of Robustness/Survivability By Level of Capacity By Type of Service By Frequency Bands Several ways of classifying SATCOM capabilities:

SATCOM Classifications: 

SATCOM Classifications Hard Core: dedicated, secure, enduring, survivable, autonomous (Ex: Milstar) Core: secure either through dedicated encryption (Ex: Milstar, DSCS, UFO) or augmented encryption (Ex: INMARSAT or Iridium with STU III) General Purpose: commercial non secure (Ex: Iridium without STU III or Globalstar) By robustness/survivability as defined by DoD:

SATCOM Classifications: 

SATCOM Classifications Narrowband: used for low traffic data rates (Ex: UFO, Milstar’s LDR, INMARSAT, MSAT, Iridium, Globalstar) Wideband: used for high traffic data rates (Ex: DSCS, Milstar’s MDR, INTELSAT, Aniks, Broadband satellites: Astrolink, Skybridge, Spaceway, Teledesic) Broadcast: used for broadcasting services (Ex: Military GBS or Commercial DBS: Aniks) By level of capacity:

SATCOM Classifications: 

SATCOM Classifications Fixed Satellite Service (FSS): to fixed earth stations (Ex: Milstar, DSCS, INTELSAT). Mobile Satellite Service (MSS): to vehicles, ships and aircraft (Ex: Military UHF, INMARSAT, MSAT). Personal Satellite Service (PSS): to handhelds. Truly for the soldier on the move (Ex: Iridium, Globalstar). By type of service:

SATCOM Classifications: 

SATCOM Classifications UHF: 300 MHz - 3 GHz UHF, L, and part of S band. SHF: 3 GHz - 30 GHz Part of S, C, X, Ku, K, and part of Ka band. EHF: 30 GHz - 300 GHz Part of Ka, V, and W band. By frequency bands: L S C X Ku Ka V W K UHF SHF EHF UHF 1 2 4 8 12 18 27 40 75 110 GHz


UHF Advantages: Small mobile terminals (narrow BW, low power). Good in bad weather and dense foliage. Mature reliable technology. Most common military terminal. Limitations: Crowded spectrum. Small bandwidth limited to low data rates and does not permit anti-jamming (A/J) and Low Probability of Detection (LPD) schemes.


SHF Advantages: Greater capacity due to wider bandwidth available. Better A/J capability possible. More likely to survive austere and hostile environment. Limitations: Poor mobility: larger ground equipment (narrow beam antennas, and higher power to accommodate wider BW needed for A/J capability). More vulnerable to attacks due to larger physical profile.


EHF Advantages: Widest bandwidth available. Greatest A/J capabilities. Least affected by scintillation. Better guaranteed communications. New technologies (greatest growth potential). Limitations: May need large power and/or large ground terminals due to high susceptibility to atmospheric absorption and foliage blockage. Can trade mobility for A/J capability & capacity. New technologies (efficiency not yet optimized).


Capability High Moderate Low Frequency Mobility Capacity Cost A/J UHF SHF EHF Cost Mobility A/J Capacity Trade Offs possible

DND Organizations & Projects: 

DND Organizations & Projects

D Space D - mission: 

D Space D - mission To provide effective space-related Departmental planning, coordination, and direction in support of CF operations, programs and the protection of Canada CHAMPION OF SPACE IN DND

Space Training Requirements: 

Space Training Requirements Level 1 (Basic Knowledge) Gradual integration into existing programs Variable scope corresponding to DP level Targeted program for NCM Level 2 (Detailed Knowledge - Joint) Concentrated format (3 - 4 Weeks) Throughput 20 students/yr

D Space D - projects: 

D Space D - projects G1945 CANMILSATCOM $646M M1713 FLEETSATCOM $20M A2371 NAVSTAR GPS $153M L2683 Positioning for LF $69M


CANMILSATCOM “our” space segment Divided into 4 independent Projects: 2803: Protected MILSATCOM (AEHF) – $470M launch in 2006 + user terminal 2802: Enhanced UHF Terminals - $22M TBD: GBS Capability - $30M TBD: Advanced Mobile Capability - $111M

D Space D - projects: 

D Space D - projects G2667 JSP $624M G2773 TROODOS $28M A2040 SARSAT $65M


JSP Summary 98/99 00/01 02/03 10/11 08/09 04/05 06/07 Intel EO Wx Geo Ocean S of S S frm S RADARSAT SBR Warning $3M - $6M $30M - $50M <$3M <$3M <$3M $10M to $60M <$50M >$350M

DREO crest: 

DREO crest


DREO RADARSAT II Small Satellite Project research initiatives

David Florida Lab crest: 

David Florida Lab crest

David Florida Laboratories: 

David Florida Laboratories Spacecraft design & testing facility temperature extremes vacuum vibration RF spectrum performance Assembly & Integration

CTC spacecraft in assembly area: 

CTC spacecraft in assembly area

SRMS in Thermal Vacuum chamber: 

SRMS in Thermal Vacuum chamber

CSA crest: 

CSA crest

CSA - Objectives: 

CSA - Objectives to ensure the development and application of space science and technology to meet Canadian needs to ensure the development of an internationally competitive space industry in Canada

CSA - Industry Partners: 

CSA - Industry Partners Spar COM DEV CAL Corp MDA Bristol Aerospace IMT Comm Systems Calian Technolgies SED Systems $300M annual budget


It’s time we face reality, my friends. We’re not exactly rocket scientists.



DND’s Current Providers: 

DND’s Current Providers Telesat (Aniks & MSAT) INTELSAT INMARSAT UHF Follow-On (UFO) NATO IV Skynet IV Commercial MILSATCOM

Telesat Canada: 

Telesat Canada Founded in 1969 by act of parliament World’s most experienced commercial SATCOM operator Sole operator of communications satellites in Canada ANIK E & F series, and MSAT (through Telesat Mobile).


ANIK E used by NWS Alert requires HADCS MMs use excess NWS bandwidth


MSAT Canada’s first mobile satellite network Designed by CRC and built by SPAR GEO Satellite - Launched in 1996 Backs up the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC 1) launched 1995 Coverage of North America & Mexico


MSAT Directional Antenna under Magnetic Dome Tripod-mounted, 1-m dish can be used via coax cable.


Intelsat International Telecommunication Satellite Organization MM terminals pay by the month ($60K) requires host nations approval


Intelsat Intelsat


INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite 4 INMARSAT-2 and 5 INMARSAT-3 geostationary satellites $6 per minute “non-military” uses INMARSAT Mini-M INMARSAT B



Military Systems: 

Military Systems SKYNET (British) SYRACUSE (French) FLTSATCOM (US) DCS (US) MILSTAR (US)

Skynet IV: 

Skynet IV geosynchronous satellite Coverage from east coast of North America to central Turkey 2 UHF, 4 X band, 1 Q band




SYRACUSE System of RAdio Communication .Using a SatellitE


SYRACUSE French military space segment on TELECOM-2 commercial satellite coverage from Newfoundland to Indian Ocean 2x40 MHz single channel repeaters


FLTSATCOM 4 satellites in geosynchronous orbit 24 x UHF/X-band & 32 Q-band launched in 1978 dated technology but still in use




DSCS Defence Satellite Communication System DSCS III now in orbit 8 satellites 6 channels UHF and SHF bands To be replaced by WGS




MILSTAR Military Strategic and Tactical Relay very expensive EMP hardened Medium Data Rate (MDR) 37 Frequency Agile Spot Beams Antenna Nulling, Frequency Hopping Switchboard in the sky





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