SOUTH AMERICA

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FLORA AND FAUNA OF SOUTH AMERICA

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South America a home to flora and fauna…

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South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas!

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Importance 0f Forests Watershed Forests serve as a watershed. This is because almost all water ultimately comes from rivers and lakes and from forest-derived water tables. Habitat and Ecosystems Forests serve as a home (habitat) to millions of animals. All these different animals and plants are called biodiversity , and the interaction with one another and with their physical environment is what we call an ecosystem.

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Economic benefits Forests are of immense economic importance to us. For example, plantation forests provide humans with timber and wood, which is exported and used in all parts of the world. Climate Control Climate control and atmosphere purification are key for human existence. Trees and soils help regulate atmospheric temperatures through a process called evapotranspiration.

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Importance of WiLDLiFE Wildlife plays a significant role in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of nature . The presence of wildlife is also an effective way to assess the quality of the environment . Wildlife serves as an abundant resource of food and livelihood . The presence of wildlife opens the possibility of a thriving tourism industry . National parks around the world earn massive incomes every year by opening wildlife observatories and creating safari parks where visitors can observe wild animals in their natural habitats.

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Flora of South America

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South America’s landscape is one of the most diverse in the world. Its NEO THERMAL KINGDOM , is one of only six floral kingdoms in the world . The ecosystem supports 9,600 recorded plant species. 70 per cent of them are found nowhere else on the planet. South America’s floristic diversity is increased by its high mountains, especially the Andes Mountains, which extend from north to south along the western part of the continent for much of its length . ) South America has such diverse biomes as tropical rain forests, tropical savannas, extremely dry deserts, temperate forests, and alpine tundra.

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Whistling thorns Thorn trees Wattles Dicotyledons

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Monocotyledons Snowdrops Titan arum

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Fauna of South America

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Home to marsupials, monkeys and the world's largest rainforest, South America is the continent with everything - from glaciers to deserts. It became a continent in its own right on breaking away from Africa and Antarctica 120 million years ago. Its fauna and flora are therefore descended from organisms either on the continent then (marsupials, for instance) or that managed to make their way there during its isolation, New World monkeys for example, whose ancestors crossed the early Atlantic Ocean from Africa. Three million years ago, the Isthmus of Panama formed, uniting North and South America and allowing animals including big cats, bears, coral snakes and condors to move in. Home to marsupials, monkeys and the world's largest rainforest, South America is the continent with everything - from glaciers to deserts. It became a continent in its own right on breaking away from Africa and Antarctica 120 million years ago. Its fauna and flora are therefore descended from organisms either on the continent then (marsupials, for instance) or that managed to make their way there during its isolation, New World monkeys for example, whose ancestors crossed the early Atlantic Ocean from Africa. Three million years ago, the Isthmus of Panama formed, uniting North and South America and allowing animals including big cats, bears, coral snakes and condors to move in.

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REPTILES YELLOW ANACONDA GREEN SEA TURTLE GIANT RIVER TURTLE EYELASH VIPER

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AVES OSPREY ALBATROSS TOUCAN OWLS LARK JAY

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MAMMALS Greater bulldog bat Common vampire bat

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MAMMALS Three-toed sloths Armadillos

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MAMMALS Giant anteater Brown-throated sloth

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ENDANGERED SPECIES Amazonian manatee Golden lion tamarin

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ENDANGERED SPECIES Galapagos giant tortoise Waved albatross

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Orinoco crocodile Panamanian golden frog ENDANGERED SPECIES

Projects initiated to conserve flora and fauna in South America :

Projects initiated to conserve flora and fauna in South America Chamicero de Perijá Nature Reserve in CO LOMBIA. Berbice Survey in GUYANA. Seeking the Secrets of the Santa Marta Toro in COLOMBIA.

Projects initiated to conserve flora and fauna in South America :

Projects initiated to conserve flora and fauna in South America Restoring Glass Frog Habitat at Itapúa Tropical Rainforest Reserve in ECUADOR. Protecting the Flea Toad and Other Unique Species of Serra Bonita in BRAZIL. Establishing a Biodiversity Baseline in the Upper Potaro Plateau in GUYANA.

Projects initiated to conserve flora and fauna in South America :

Projects initiated to conserve flora and fauna in South America Exploring the pristine forests of south-central Guyana in GUYANA. Exploring the biodiversity of the Rupununi Savannah in GUYANA.

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The Amazon rainforest accounts for more than half of the entire world's remaining rainforests. South America is home to more than 10000 species of fauna in the world. There are over 40,000 different plant species and approximately 2.5 million insect species in the Amazon rainforest. The continent is also referred to as the ‘Lungs of the Planet' because it produces more than 20% of the world's oxygen. The May 2013 Red List includes over 2,600 animals in South America to be considered as ENDANGERED! STUNNING NUMBERS!

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HELPING HANDS… RIDHAM JAIN PRIYANSHU JAIN APOORVA AGGARWAL VAIBHAV GOEL SHREYANSH JAIN

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