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Privatizing Peacekeeping: The Growing Prominence of Private Military Companies in Conflict and Crisis : 

Privatizing Peacekeeping: The Growing Prominence of Private Military Companies in Conflict and Crisis Colonel Christopher T. Mayer Chief of Staff Defense Reconstruction Support Office

Introduction: 

Introduction Definitions History Recent Development PMCs as Enablers of Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Relief The Dangers of Employing PMCs Concepts for Mitigating Risk Conclusion

Definitions: 

Definitions Mercenary Private Military Company Humanitarian Relief Organization Complex Contingency Principles of Military Operations Other Than War

Mercenary: 

Mercenary a soldier hired into foreign service (Merriam Webster’s Collegiate College Dictionary, 10th Edition) A person who fights in a conflict for compensation substantially greater than that made by regular soldiers; is not a national of the state in which the conflict is fought nor a citizen of one of the parties to the conflict; and is not himself a member of the armed forces of a party to the conflict.

Legal Requirements for Mercenarism: 

Legal Requirements for Mercenarism specially recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict; does, in fact, take a direct part in the hostilities; motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party; not a national of a Party to the conflict nor a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict; not a member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict; and not been sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces.

Private Military Company: 

Private Military Company A corporate body that specializes in providing military skills to legitimate governments. Such skills may include training, planning, analysis of intelligence, operational support, and technical support. Also: Private Military Firms, Privatized Military Companies, Private Military Corporations, and similar

Private Security Company: 

Private Security Company PMCs, or subordinate components of PMCs, whose mission set is limited to providing defensive protection for personnel, facilities, and (more rarely) materiel. PSCs have limited armament and do not engage in combat (battles and engagements.) Almost all PMC type companies conducting active operations in Iraq are PSCs

Humanitarian Relief Organization: 

Humanitarian Relief Organization A group that provides or supports relief assistance to mortally endangered populations. This includes nongovernmental organizations, UN agencies, Red Cross organizations, international organizations, and some elements of donor agencies.

Complex Contingencies: 

Complex Contingencies Any military operation (other than large scale combat) executed in conjunction with a humanitarian assistance operation

Principles of MOOTW: 

Principles of MOOTW Objective: Direct every military operation towards a clearly defined, decisive and obtainable objective Unity of Effort: Seek unity of effort in every operation. Security: Never permit hostile factions to acquire an unexpected advantage Restraint: Apply appropriate military capability prudently Perseverance: Prepare for the measured, protracted application of military capability in support of strategic goals Legitimacy: Sustain the willing acceptance by the people of the right of the government to govern or agency to make and carry out decisions.

History: Mercenary Organizations: 

History: Mercenary Organizations White Company 14th century Swiss Guard 15th century to today Landesknechts 16th Century Wild Geese 17th century East India Company 18th and 19th century Escadrille Lafayette First World War Abraham Lincoln Brigade Spanish Civil War Kondor Legion Spanish Civil War Eagle Squadon Second World War American Volunteer Group (Flying Tigers) Second World War

History: Individual Mercenaries: 

History: Individual Mercenaries Sir William Marshall Sir John Hawkwood Captain John Smith Prince Eugene of Savoy (Prinz Eugen) Baron Friedrich v. Stueben Count Casimir Pulaski Gilbert du Mottier (Marquis de Lafayette) Capt John Paul Jones Col. Carl v. Clausewitz Capt. Raoul Lufbery Maj. Claire Chennault Charles Lindbergh

Private Military Companies are a Growing Presence: 

Private Military Companies are a Growing Presence End of Cold War (New World Disorder) Great power drawdown of military capability Global explosion of crises Increasing reluctance of great powers to get involved Professional regular military forces may not be available Professional military forces are uneconomical Regular military forces may be unsuitable

Non-combat roles in support of Military Operations: 

Non-combat roles in support of Military Operations PMCs act as economy of force to indirectly support military operations Security for Personnel, Materiel, and Facilities Staff Assistance Theater Engagement Strategy Civil Affairs

Reconstruction Operations Center: Purpose and Functions: 

Reconstruction Operations Center: Purpose and Functions Facilitate integration of the contracting community to military operations Sanitized intelligence National and regional situational awareness Facilitate response in the event of an emergency Coordinate non-military movements, movement of material in support of U.S. funded reconstruction Coordinate for military support to civilian/contractor operations Provide security and intelligence support to PCO/Army Corps of Engineers operations throughout Iraq Provide situational awareness on the current and future status of complete reconstruction effort across Iraq

Reconstruction Operations Center: A Blended Staff of Military and PMC: 

Reconstruction Operations Center: A Blended Staff of Military and PMC ROC C-1 Admin C-4 LMCC C-5 LNOs C-9 NCMOC C-2 Intel C-3 PCO ops C-6 Comm/IT The national CMOC is a part of the ROC. Cmd Gp Basrah, Hillah, Ramadi Tikrit, Mosul, & Baghdad Regional ROC/CMOC Military Staff PSC Staff Blended Staff

Non-combat roles in support of Military Operations: 

Non-combat roles in support of Military Operations PMCs act as economy of force to indirectly support military operations Security for Personnel, Materiel, and Facilities Staff Assistance Theater Engagement Strategy Civil Affairs

Support for Civil Affairs: Examples of PMC Civil Action Projects: 

Support for Civil Affairs: Examples of PMC Civil Action Projects School supplies: desks, stationery, children’s backpacks Inoculation program Clean drinking water for schools

Support for Civil Affairs: 

Other PMC Civil Action Projects - Small infrastructure – football pitch, playground, community café Oil heaters for schools Sports equipment Heritage & conservation Donations to orphanages Mosque repair Support for Civil Affairs

Support for Humanitarian Relief Organizations: 

Support for Humanitarian Relief Organizations Direct protection for personnel and materiel Intelligence Coordination and Liaison Local population “Arm’s Length” Cooperation with Military

Intelligence: 

Intelligence MNFI OTHERS CACOM G2 CELL CLIENTS CONTRACTORS Incorporates Sanitized Intelligence PSC Open Source Intelligence SLT Tactical Intelligence PSC G2 CELL CLAS UNCLAS THREAT / TIME SPECIFIC Produces daily INTSUM for Contractors UN Mil etc.

Support for Humanitarian Relief Organizations: 

Support for Humanitarian Relief Organizations Direct protection for personnel and materiel Intelligence Coordination and Liaison Local population “Arm’s Length” Cooperation with Military

Local liaison adds value: 

Local liaison adds value Local leadership Intelligence Security warnings

Other Capabilities and Limitations: 

Other Capabilities and Limitations Capabilities Adapability Scalability Deployability Limitations Direct Combat Operations Level I Threat

PMCs Present Real Risks: 

PMCs Present Real Risks Legitimacy Security Unity of Effort

PMCs can undermine Legitimacy: 

PMCs can undermine Legitimacy PMCs have not always been on the side of the angels Illegitimate use of PMCs Violations of International Humanitarian Law Violations of Anti-Mercenary International Agreements The very use of a PMC can undermine legitimacy of the effort

PMCs can compromise Security: 

PMCs can compromise Security Hostile Infiltration Direct and indirect pressure Intimidation

Challenges for Unity of Effort: 

Challenges for Unity of Effort Parallel or divergent operations and objectives “Stovepipe” employment Lack of interoperability With Military With Other PMCs The Commercial Nature of PMCs

Risk Management: 

Risk Management

Planning: 

Objective: Begin with the End in Mind Planning

Support for Legitimacy: 

Support for Legitimacy Work with the Host Nation Government Use Command Information Program Civil Affairs Program Respect Host Nation Sovereignty

Support for Security: 

Support for Security Effective and Screening Effective Interviewing Continuous Follow-up

Support for Unity of Effort: 

Support for Unity of Effort PMC Steering Committee Open Architecture C4 Mandatory Cooperation With the Military With other PMCs ROC/CMOC Model

Accountability: 

Accountability The fundamental perceived difference between government and contractor operations Planners must incorporate market driven accountability

Establishment and Enforcement of Industry Standards: 

Establishment and Enforcement of Industry Standards Governmental Bodies and the PMC Community is moving towards regulation and certification Planners should incorporate suitable standards into their contract award process Standards should address these issues in any request for proposals: Contractor history (legitimacy) Personnel vetting (security) interoperability (unity of effort)

Coalition Provisional Authority Memorandum 17: 

Coalition Provisional Authority Memorandum 17 Business License in the country of operations Accountability of Weapons Standards of Weapons Training Vetting Standards No felony convictions No history of Terrorist activity Public Liability Insurance Liability of officers for the actions of their employees

Mitigation Matrix: 

Mitigation Matrix Industry Standards Effective Contract Management formalizes the mitigation effort Accountability

Program Management: 

Program Management Planning and mitigation efforts must be clearly reflected in your proposal and the contract itself Use of Boilerplate Program Manager is critical

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Private Military Companies will continue to play a critical role in complex contingencies and other crises PMCs offer a wide variety of critical enablers to regular military forces and Humanitarian Relief Organizations There is significant risk associated with PMCs PMC employment requires competent program management to exploit their capabilities while mitigating risk

References: 

References James R. Davis, Fortune’s Warriors, (Toronto, CA, Douglas & MacIntyre, 2000) P.W. Singer, Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, (Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2003) Lt Col Tim Spicer OBE, An Unorthodox Soldier, (Edinburgh, U.K.,Mainstream Publishing Company (Edinburgh) Ltd. 1999) Peter W. Singer, Corporate Warriors: The Rise and Ramifications of the Privatized Military Industry (International Security, Vol. 26, No. 3, Winter 2001/2002.) David Isenberg, A Fistful of Contractors: The Case for a Pragmatic Assessment of Private Military Companies in Iraq (British American Security Council, Sept 2004) Maj Major S. Goddard, The Private Military Company: A Legitimate Entity within Modern Conflict (US Army CGSC Thesis, 2001) Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Private Military Companies: Options for Regulation (The Stationery Office, London, 2002)

Contingency Task Matrix: 

Contingency Task Matrix

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