middle cololnies and southern colonies

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Slide 1: 

The Restoration Colonies

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New York

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Settling the Middle [or “Restoration”] Colonies

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Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands 1600s  Golden Age of Dutch history. Major commercial and naval power. Challenging England on the seas. 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars Major colonial power [mainly in the East Indies].

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Henry Hudson’s Voyages

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New Netherlands New Netherlands  founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624) Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade. Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony. Manhattan [New Amsterdam] Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre.

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Company town run in interests of the stockholders. No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy. Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic. Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted. Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists. New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639

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New Amsterdam, 1660 Characteristics of New Amsterdam: Aristocratic  patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them]. Cosmopolitan  diverse population with many different languages.

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New York Manors & Land Grants Patroonships

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New Netherlands &New Sweden

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Swedes in New Netherlands Mid-1600s  Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near New Netherland. 1655  Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesant attack New Sweden. Main fort fell after bloodless siege. New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland.

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New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!] 1664  English soldiers arrived. Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses. Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot. Renamed “New York” England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies. England now controlled the Atlantic coast!

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Duke of York’s Original Charter

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New Amsterdam, 1664

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Dutch Residue in New York Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC. New York Cityseal. Names  Harlem, Brooklyn Architecture  gambrel roof Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].

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The Quakers Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense religious practices. They offended religious & secular leaders in England. Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. They met without paid clergy Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference. Keep hats on. Addressed them as commoners  ”thees”/“thous.” Wouldn’t take oaths. Pacifists.

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Aristocratic Englishman. 1660 – attracted tothe Quaker faith. Embraced Quakerismafter military service. 1681  he received agrant from king toestablish a colony. This settled a debt the king owed his father. Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”]. He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers  his pamphlets were pretty honest. Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants. William Penn

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Royal Land Grant to Penn

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Penn & Native Americans Bought [didn’t simply take] land from Indians. Quakers went among the Indians unarmed. BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA Treated native peoples poorly. This undermined the actions of the Quakers!

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Penn’s Treaty with theNative Americans

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Government of Pennsylvania Representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax-supported church. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all. Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt. Death penalty only for treason & murder. Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

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Pennsylvanian Society Attracted many different people Religious misfits from other colonies. Many different ethnic groups. No provision for military defense. No restrictions on immigration. No slavery!! “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc. A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!!

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Philadelphia & Boston Compared

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Urban Population Growth1650 - 1775

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New Jersey

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New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor 1664  aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area from the Duke of York. Many New Englanders [because of worn out soil] moved to NJ. 1674  West NJ sold to Quakers. East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers. 1702  E & W NJ combined into NJ and created one colony.

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Delaware — PA’s Neighbor Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610]. Closely associated with Penn’s colony. 1703  granted its own assembly. Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution.

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Ethnic Groups

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The Carolinas

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The West Indies  Way Station to Mainland America 1670  a group of small English farmers from the West Indies arrived in Carolina. Were squeezed out by sugar barons. Brought a few black slaves and a model of the Barbados slave code with them. Names for King Charles II. The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters [Lord Proprietors]. They hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe.

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Settling the “Lower South”

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Colonizing the Carolinas Carolina developed close economic ties to the West Indies. Many Carolinian settlers were originally from the West Indies. They used local Savannah Indians to enslave other Indians [about 10,000] and send them to the West Indies [and some to New England]. 1707  Savannah Indians decided to migrate to PA. PA promised better relations with whites. Carolinians decided to “thin” the Savannahs before they could leave  bloody raids killed most of them by 1710.

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Port of Charles Town, SC Also named for King Charles II of England. Became the busiest port in the South. City with aristocratic feel. Religious toleration attracted diverse inhabitants.

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The primary export. Rice was still an exotic food in England. Was grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves. These slaves had a genetic trait that made them immune to malaria. By 1710  black slaves were a majority in Carolina. Crops of the Carolinas: Rice American Long Grain Rice

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Crops of theCarolinas: Indigo In colonial times, the main use for indigo was as a dye for spun cotton threads that were woven into cloth for clothes. Today in the US, the main use for indigo is a dye for cotton work clothes & blue jeans.

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Rice & Indigo Exportsfrom SC & GA: 1698-1775

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Conflict With Spanish Florida Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestants on their borders. Anglo-Spanish Wars The Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina. Either inciting local Native Americans to attack or attacking themselves. By 1700  Carolina was too strong to be wiped out by the Spanish!

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The Emergence of North Carolina Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA VA dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally Church of England members. Dissenters from VA moved south to northern Carolina. Poor farmers with little need for slaves. Religious dissenters. Distinctive traits of North Carolinians Irreligious & hospitable to pirates. Strong spirit of resistance to authority. 1712  NC officially separated from SC.

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18c Southern Colonies

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Late-Coming Georgia Founded in 1733. Last of the 13 colonies. Named in honor of King George II. Founded by James Oglethorpe.

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Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia: As a “buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish Florida & French Louisiana. Received subsidies from British govt. to offset costs of defense. Export silk and wine. A haven for debtors thrown in to prison. Determined to keep slavery out! Slavery found in GAby 1750.

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The Port City of Savannah Diverse community. All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration. Missionaries worked among debtors and Indians  most famous was John Wesley.