max and harrys history project

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By Max and Harry Surgery through time!

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Pre-historic Pre-historic people had very limited knowledge and most of there surgery was based on supernatural beliefs such as trepanning which they believed released evil spirits.

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Pre-historic Although trepanning did not actually release evil spirits it did release trapped fluid from the brain, helping the patient to get better. It is also still used today.

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In ancient history there wasn’t much change in surgery although there were some minor improvements. Ancient history

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The Egyptians had a vast knowledge of body parts because of mummification, it allowed doctors to see inside the body . Egyptian

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They also had specialist doctors for eye and rectum surgery when it was needed. Egyptian

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The Greeks also used super natural theories towards surgery, people went to Asclepius to be healed by the Greek god of healing Asclepia. Greek

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Historians believe that the people were drugged and then surgery was carried out by surgeons whilst they were ‘asleep’ Greek

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Again not much changed in the Roman period, but surgeons did have detailed anatomy of the body because of all of the wounds that they treated. Rome

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Over all of the ancient time periods trepanning and amputations were often used, in Greek and Roman times a basic antiseptic was used, and for a painkiller poppy seeds were used for the wound. So throughout the ancient period there was very little change in surgery.

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Medieval The medieval surgery was gruesome and often done in very dirty conditions. Also many unqualified people performed surgery.

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Medieval Barbers and butchers included human surgery into their daily routine, which in dirty conditions often led to infections and then death. Mainly poor people went to these surgeons.

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Medieval There were qualified surgeons who had been taught the 4 humours which meant they performed many bleeding operations. Some women were bled often as they thought it kept them healthy.

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Islamic They had more understanding of surgery as they had more books from the Greek and Romans. Surgeons were also taught at medical schools.

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Renaissance This was a turning point in surgery! As many new individuals challenged Galen because the church was no longer in power.

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Renaissance William Harvey found that the heart was a pump, that pumped the blood around the body, he used animal dissection to prove his theories.

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Renaissance Another individual was Pare who found a successful treatment for gun shot wounds using egg yolk, turpentine and oil of roses, this was important during the war because cauterisation killed many people because the pain was so intense.

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Renaissance Pare also developed ligatures that were little pieces of string tied around the arteries during amputation to stop the patient from bleeding to death.

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Renaissance Also Versailles published his book ‘the fabric of the human body’ and he was the first to challenge Galen, when he proved that the jaw bone was one bone instead of two as Galen had first said. This was important because he showed people that Galen hadn’t worked out everything and other developments could be made!

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Renaissance In the Renaissance period they were allowed to dissect humans, which allowed detailed anatomy of the human body. It was also the first time period that surgery dramatically changed.

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Industrial rev. Lister used carbolic spray on his hands and equipment before and during surgery to sterilise it, which reduced the chance of infection.

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Industrial rev. Simpson discovered chloroform could be used to knock out a patient for surgery, however if too much was used it killed them. Snow invented an chloroform inhaler so that the right amount could be inhaled safely .

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Industrial rev. After Pasteur’s germ theory was published, Florence Nightingale tried to keep the hospitals as clean as possible so that no infections were caused by dirt in the hospitals.

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Industrial rev. In the industrial revolution there were again big changes, this is mostly because of Pasteur’s germ theory, it allowed people to sterilise equipment and hospitals clean.

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20th Century Key-hole surgery was surgery that left only tiny scars and is widely used now. Fibre optic cables allowed people to see inside the body in extreme detail.

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20th Century Surgeons could re-attach limbs and rejoin nerves and blood vessels.

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20th Century In 1921 blood types were discovered and then they discovered that sodium nitrate prevented it from clotting when stored for use. Therefore blood transfusions were made possible.

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20th Century In 1967 the first heart transplant was carried out. Although kidneys and livers had already been done before. After this bone marrow was discovered to be able to be transplanted.

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20th Century New technology in x-rays meant that they were able to see clear pictures inside the body, which allowed them to do more precise operations.

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20th Century Marie curie developed ideas on radio therapy which led to treatments such as Kino therapy for cancer patients.

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20th Century The war meant that plastic surgery was needed to help rebuild features of wounded soldiers, but this developed so much that people now use plastic surgery for personal reasons.

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Overall we think that the 20th century was the most important of all the time periods as it had the most improvements in surgery. THE END.

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