Religion in Pre-colonial Kumintang [Batangas Province]

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Religion in Pre-colonial Kumintang by Jigger Gilera, M.D., M.H.A. :

Religion in Pre-colonial Kumintang by Jigger Gilera, M.D., M.H.A.

Slide2:

There are some evidences of the nature of religion in pre-colonial Batangas .

Slide3:

Hinduism / Buddhism

Buddhism:

Buddhism Buddhism /ˈ budɪzəm / is a nontheistic religion or (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali : dhamma), that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one"). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hinduism:

Hinduism Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life , in South Asia, most notably India. It includes Shaivism , Vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma , dharma, and societal norms . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slide6:

Though there is no written record yet discovered of when Buddhism / Hinduism first arrived in Kumintang (Comintan), the area known today as Batangas before the colonial period.

Slide7:

Buddhism, particularly Vajrayana Buddhism, gained a foothold in the Philippines with the rise of the Indianized Buddhist Srivijaya Empire centered in Sumatra in the 7th century. By Shravasti Dhammika

Evidences:

Evidences Archaeological Discoveries Books / Spanish Manuscript Hindu/Buddhist Influence

Archaeological Discoveries:

Archaeological Discoveries Recent archaeological discoveries and a few scant references in other nations' historical records have provided some hints as to the nature of religion in Kumintang (Comintan) at this time.

Slide10:

IMAGES

Padmapani image:

Padmapani image Padmapani is also known as Avalokitesvara, the wisdom being or Bodhisattva of Compassion . Archaeological finds in Batangas include a Buddhist image common to Vajrayana iconography.

Slide12:

Padmapani image found in 1961 in Calatagan, Batangas. [Karitunan site] " Padmapani or "Lotus-Bearer"

Unknown Image:

Unknown Image

Slide14:

An image, perhaps a talisman, found along the northern shore, opposite the dive site we call "the fort." The feature seem western, or maybe, Indian. By Thomas Hargrove [The Mysteries of Taal ](1991)

Nandi Cow:

Nandi Cow Nandi (Sanskrit: नन्दी, Tamil: நந்தி, Kannada: ನಂದಿ, Telugu: న౦ది) is the name for the bull which serves as the mount (Sanskrit: Vahana) of the god Shiva and as the gatekeeper of Shiva and Parvati. In Hindu Religion, he is the chief guru of eighteen masters (18 Siddhar ) including Patanjali and Thirumular .

Slide16:

17th Century sculpture of a Nandi in Mysore.

Slide17:

Nasugbu Cow or Nandi Cow (not the original) In Barrio Tala , Nasugbu, a week before World War II, a stone (other documents says wooden) cow in a sitting position was found in a cave. It was hewn from flint stone and was very highly polished, according to one Lucas Baquian. Knowing that it was of great significance to the history of the country, the cow was immediately handed over the National Museum, but it did not survive the destruction of the war.

Slide18:

Srivijaya Empire ( 683-1288 ) An Empire in Asia

Srivijaya Empire:

Srivijaya Empire The artifacts reflect the iconography of Vajrayana Buddhism, and suggests the influence of the Srivijaya empire. The archaeological finds are artifacts from Buddhist or Hindu mythologies. Various archaeological finds suggest that it was likely present in some form by the 9th century CE.

Srivijaya:

Srivijaya Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Thai: ศรีวิชัย or Ṣ̄rī wichạy, RTGS: Siwichai) was a dominant thalassocratic city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia . Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. In Sanskrit, sri ( श्री) means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya ( विजय) means "victorious" or "excellence ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Visaya Etymology:

Visaya Etymology A theory proposed by some scholars states that the term Visayas was derived from the name of a 7th-century thalassocratic Malay Srivijaya Empire. [by Jovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960 )]

Terminology:

Terminology According to H. Otley Beyer and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of Panay and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas, while the people of Cebu, Bohol, and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to these other islands because, as several of the early writers state, albeit erroneously, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan "dialect" of Panay .

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan) BLAIR, Emma Helen / ROBERTSON, James Alexander (1906). The Philippine Islands (1493-1898). Don Fausto Cruzat y Gongora (1690-1701):

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan ) BLAIR , Emma Helen / ROBERTSON , James Alexander (1906). The Philippine Islands (1493-1898 ). Don Fausto Cruzat y Gongora (1690-1701)

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan) "live in swampy lands and where there are rivers" (Lemery) [Boxer Codex] 1595 :

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan ) "live in swampy lands and where there are rivers" (Lemery) [Boxer Codex] 1595

Lemery:

Lemery

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan) no tattoo (non Pintados) [Boxer Codex] 1595:

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan) no tattoo (non Pintados) [Boxer Codex] 1595

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan) "Indios Bailando el Comintang " Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1734) :

Visayans in Kumintang (Comintan) "Indios Bailando el Comintang " Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1734)

Kumintang (Comintan):

Kumintang (Comintan) Language resembles of Visayan BLAIR , Emma Helen / ROBERTSON, James Alexander (1906). The Philippine Islands (1493-1898).

Vajrayana Buddhism:

Vajrayana Buddhism According to various historical sources, a complex and cosmopolitan society with a refined culture, deeply influenced by Vajrayana Buddhism, flourished in the Srivijayan capital. A stronghold of Vajrayana Buddhism, Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia.

Slide30:

BOOKS

Books:

Books 1225 A.D. Zhufan Zhi (Chinese: 諸蕃志 ; pinyin: Zhufan Zhi; Wade–Giles: Chu-fan-chi), literally "Description of the Barbarous Peoples" or "Records of Foreign Peoples", "Gazetteer of Foreigners" By Zhao Rugua (Chinese: 趙汝适 ; pinyin: Zhao Rugua; Wade–Giles: Chau Ju-Kua/Chou Ju-kua) (1170–1228)

Slide32:

Bronze images of gods

Books:

Books 1433 A.D. Ying ya sheng lan / Ma Huan Zhuan [ 瀛涯勝覽 / 馬歡撰 ]

Luǒ xíng guó (裸形國) country of Luǒ xíng (Liu-shin) [Lucsuhin/Luzon]:

Luǒ xíng guó ( 裸形國 ) country of Luǒ xíng (Liu-shin) [Lucsuhin/Luzon]

Slide35:

“There on the beach where a foot of light stone footprint, 2 long Chixu , Shakya cloud from Turquoise Mountains, from where a foot land in this stone , it traces Cunyan. “ Buddhapada o PAANG CALATAGAN - The footprints of the Buddha are venerated in all Buddhist countries.

Slide36:

“ Sakyamuni Buddha over the sea, which lands here.”

Slide37:

Hindu / Buddhist Influence

Hindu/ Buddhist Influence:

Hindu/ Buddhist Influence Hinduism / Buddhism has a long historical influence in Batangas , but recent archaeological and other evidence suggests Hinduism / Buddhism has had some cultural and religious influence in the ancient Batangas (Kumintang).

Cultural Influence:

Cultural Influence Culture (/ˈ kʌltʃər /) is, in the words of E.B. Tylor , "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." (Tylor 1871:1 ) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clothing:

Clothing

Slide41:

The sarong ( skirt ) and potong (turban) of the pre-Spanish Filipinos and the embroidered shawls of the present-day Filipino women reveal Indian influences. by Vrndavan Parker

Sarong / Saya / Skirt:

Sarong / Saya / Skirt Sarongs are widespread in the Northeast part of India – in the state of Manipur, where they are called phanek, in the South Indian states of Kerala, where they are called mundu (if fully white or fully black) and lungi or kaili if coloured, and Tamil Nadu, where they are called sarem or veshti or lungi and are usually worn at home. A standard lungi measures 2.12 by 1.2 metres . Unlike the brightly coloured Southeast Asian sarongs, the Kerala variety (the mundu) is more often plain white and is worn for ceremonial or religious purposes. In Kerala, the brightly coloured sarongs are called kaily and the white ones are called mundu. The more formal, all-white dhoti is worn for formal and religious occasions. While there are dresses based on the mundu which can be worn by women, they more commonly wear the sari.

Sati:

Sati A shawl (from Sanskrit: शाटी śāṭī) is a simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head. It is usually a rectangular or square piece of cloth, that is often folded to make a triangle but can also be triangular in shape . Kashmir, in India, was a pivotal point through which the wealth, knowledge, and products of ancient India passed to the world. Perhaps the most widely known woven textiles are the famed Kashmir shawls. The Kanikar, for instance, has intricately woven designs that are formalized imitations of Nature.

Potong / Turban:

Potong / Turban Tag. putong = indian turban ; crown; cloth tied around the head

Language:

Language The linguistic influence left its most lasting marks on every Philippine language throughout the archipelago with the following Buddhist and Hindu concepts directly from the original Sanskrit. About 25% of the words in many Philippine languages are Sanskrit terms : Influences in Tagalog sidhi "perfection" from Sanskrit siddhi budhî "conscience" from the Sanskrit bodhi dalita "one who suffers" from the Sanskrit dharita dukhâ "poverty" from the Sanskrit dukkha guró "teacher" from the Sanskrit guru sampalataya "faith" from the Sanskrit sampratyaya mukhâ "face" from the Sanskrit mukha lahò "eclipse", "disappear" from the Sanskrit rahu maharlika "noble" from Sanskrit mahardikka saranggola "kite" from Sanskrit layang gula (via Malay) asawa "spouse" from Sanskrit swami bagay "thing" from Tamil "vagai" talà "star" from Sanskrit tala puto , a traditional rice pastry, from Tamil puttu (via Malay)

Sanskrit:

Sanskrit Sanskrit (/ˈ sænskrɪt /; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], or संस्कृत saṃskṛta, originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "refined speech") is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. It is a standardised dialect of the Old Indo-Aryan language, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slide47:

Taal is a Sanskrit word which means "lake".

Baybayin :

Baybayin Baybayin is an ancient pre-colonial Philippine writing system. It is a member of the Brahmic family of India and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Calatagan Pot:

Calatagan Pot The pot was recovered in Mang Tomas Archaeological Site, Calatagan, Batangas in 1961. It is unique and classified as atypical earthenware with ancient syllabic inscription on the shoulder. The Calatagan ritual pot is the only one of its kind with an ancient script.

Slide50:

A recent reading of the Calatagan pot points to a Hindu deity often represented as an elephant-headed god. This god they said is popular during the eighth–fifteenth century CE in Indonesia. R . G. Guillermo and M. J. D. Paluga, Barang king banga: A Visayan language reading of the Calatagan pot inscription (CPI), vol. 42, no. 1. 2011, pp. 121-159.

Slide51:

Ganesha (/ɡəˈneɪʃə/; Sanskrit: गणेश, Gaṇeśa; About this sound listen (help·info)), also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon elephant-headed god

Title of Respect :

Title of Respect In Gujarati culture These are the "titles" for family members. With the exception of Father, Mother, and Grandparents (who are called by the title only), all of these titles are added after the name of the person .

Nanay or Kaka:

Nanay or Kaka Father's Younger Brother: Nana or Kaka (e.g. Rajesh Nana or Rajesh Kaka ) Father's Younger Brother's Wife: Nani or Kaki(e.g. Komal Nani or Komal Kaki ) Father's Older Brother: Kaka(e.g. Jiten Kaka ) Father's Older Brother's Wife: Kaki (e.g. Bhavna Kaki ) Father's Oldest Brother: Mota Kaka or Bapu (e.g. Jiten Kaka ) Father's Oldest Brother's Wife: Moti Kaki or Moti ba (e.g. Bhavna Kaki)

Mamay:

Mamay Mother's Brother: Mama (e.g. Siddarth Mama ) Mother's Brother's Wife: Mami (e.g. Komal Mami )

Dada:

Dada Paternal Grandfather: Dada or Bapuji Paternal Grandmother: Dadi or Ba Maternal Grandfather: Dada or Bapuji Maternal Grandmother: Dadi or Ba

Honorific Title Sri :

Honorific Title Sri The most common honorifics in India are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject. Honorifics which can be used of any adult of the appropriate sex include '"Sri"' (also written as Shri ). Sri (Sanskrit: श्री॰; also Sree, Shri, Shree, Siri or Seri) is the most commonly used honorific for men. The title is derived from the Sanskrit श्रीमन्, "śrīman", and is akin to the English term "Mister".

Slide57:

a chief named Siganbal (Sri Ganbal), a native of Balayan The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 - Volume 04 of 55: 1576-1582 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Related in Contemporaneous Books and Manuscripts, Showing the Political, Economic, Commercial and Religious Conditions of Those Islands from Their Earliest Relations with European Nations to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century by Robertson, James Alexander, 1873-1939; Blair, Emma Helen, -1911

Honorific Title Rajah:

Honorific Title Rajah (rāj), from Sanskrit राज्य ( rājyá, “royalty, kingship, sovereignty, empire ”)

Rajah Soliman:

Rajah Soliman

Religious Influence:

Religious Influence The possibilities include animism, Philippine mythologies such as Anito, influences from Hinduism or Buddhism.

Slide61:

The Brahmanistic elements in ancient Filipino religion and the names of their gods and mythological heroes were of Indian origin. The term Bathala (supreme god of the ancient Tagalog) originated from the Sanskrit Bhattara Guru, meaning "the highest of the gods". by Vrndavan Parker

Animism :

Animism Transfer of information by the request of Felipe Pardo , Archbishop of Manila on December 30, 1687 on idolatry denounced by India Anna Jerónima in the village of Santo Tomas and in San Pablo de los Montes, Tiaon , Batangas, Lobo, Galban , Lipa , Sala , Tanauan and others. Describes the rituals that follow from devil worship as a snake and the souls of the ancestors. Manila, June 11, 1688. ----- Archivo General de Indias Traslado de la información realizada por petición de Felipe Pardo, arzobispo de Manila en 30 de diciembre de 1687 sobre la idolatría denunciada por la india Ana Jerónima en el pueblo de Santo Tomas y en los de San Pablo de los Montes, Tiaon , Batangas, Lobo, Galban , Lipa, Sala, Tanauan y otros. Describe los ritos que se siguen de culto al demonio en forma de culebra y a las almas de los antepasados. Manila, 11 de junio de 1688. ----- Archivo General de Indias

Slide63:

Snake worship 1687 in the village of Santo Tomas and in San Pablo de los Montes, Tiaon , Batangas, Lobo, Galban , Lipa , Sala , Tanauan and others Snake worship refers to the high status of snakes or ( nagas ) in Hindu mythology. Nāga ( Sanskrit:नाग ) is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very large snake, found in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Slide64:

Idolatry still practiced in many parts Historia de la provincia de Batangas por D. Pedro Andres de Castro y Amadeo (1696)

Slide65:

Expressions

Slide66:

Bathala na (Bahala na)

Slide67:

Bachrala napaLnanca caLgna sa Lahat. [ Bathalang maykapal nagkakalinga sa lahat.] Bachrala or Bathala or Bathala or Batala was apparently derived from Sanskrit “bhattara” (noble lord) which appeared as the sixteenth-century title “batara” in the southern Philippines and Borneo. In Indonesian language “batara” means “god”, its feminine counterpart was “batari”. It may be worth noting that in Malay “betara” means holy, and was applied to the greater Hindu gods in Java, and was also assumed by the ruler of Majapahit. Boxer Codex[Ayer's manuscript] translated by Garcia and Quirino

Srivijaya Map of Kumintang:

Srivijaya Map of Kumintang

Slide69:

Islam

Islam:

Islam Islam (/ˈ ɪslɑːm /; Arabic : الإسلام‎, al-ʾIslām IPA: [ælʔɪsˈlæːm ] is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, an Islamic holy book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allāh), and for the vast majority of adherents, also by the teachings, normative example and way of life (or sunnah); it also is composed of prophetic traditions (or hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim (sometimes spelled Moslem ). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slide71:

Prior to the Islamization of several sections of the Philippines, Islam had already reached different places (such as India, Indonesia, Malaysia) from its birthplace, Arabia.

Borneans:

Borneans Being asked where he learned the worship of Mahoma, and who declared it to him, he said that the ancestors of the Borneans were natives of Meca, as he, the present witness, had heard; for the natives of Balayan, Manila, Mindoro, Bonbon, and that region did not have knowledge of the said worship until the Borneans had explained it to them; they have done so with the natives of these islands, and therefore all these are Moros now, because their ancestors learned it from the said Moros of Borney. by Joan Ochoa Ttabudo ( 1578) The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 04 of 55 - 1576-1582 - Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Related in Contemporaneous Books and Manuscripts, Showing the Political, Economic, Commercial and Religious Conditions of Those Islands from Their Earliest Relations with European Nations to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century (20 of 49)

Etymology:

Etymology Moros The word Moro was a term used in the sixteenth century by Spanish colonisers in reference to the shared Islamic beliefs between the tribal groups in the Philippines and the ethnically distinct Moors of Al-Andalus in Spain. Mahometan Mohammedan (also spelled Muhammadan, Mahommedan, Mahomedan or Mahometan) is a term for a follower of the Islamic prophet Muhammad . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Moslems in Batangas:

Moslems in Batangas Moros of Lusong and Balayan (Western Batangas) Mindanaos, Joloanos Mahometanos de profesion (Mabini and nearby areas like San Luis and Caysasay)

Moros of Lusong and Balayan:

Moros of Lusong and Balayan

Joloanos Mahometanos "Indios Bailando el Comintang" Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1734):

Joloanos Mahometanos " Indios Bailando el Comintang" Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1734)

Evidences:

Evidences Books / Spanish Manuscripts Muslim Influence

Slide78:

BOOKS

Books:

Books Shortly before Magellan's arrival in 1521, Muslim traders from Borneo actively disseminated the teachings of Islam in Mindoro, Batangas, Manila, and Pampanga. by Maria Christine N. Halili [Philippine History, 2004]

Books:

Books by Joan Ochoa Ttabudo (1578) The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 04 of 55 - 1576-1582 - Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Related in Contemporaneous Books and Manuscripts, Showing the Political, Economic, Commercial and Religious Conditions of Those Islands from Their Earliest Relations with European Nations to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century (20 of 49) Siyak or Sheikh also spelled Sheik, Shaik, Shayk, Shaikh, Cheikh or Shekh, or transliterated as Shaykh— is an honorific title in the Arabic language.

boxer:

boxer Those who have so written are in error. Much to the contrary, it is quite certain that the natives of this island of Luzón , whom we Spaniards commonly call Moros, are not so; for the truth is that they do not know or understand the law of Mahoma—only in some of the villages on the seacoast they do not eat pork, and this for the reason that they have had dealings with the Moros of Burney, who have preached to them a little of the teaching of Mahoma . http://www.philippinehistory.net/first50/luzon.htm

Moro of the Philippine Isles of the West:

Moro of the Philippine Isles of the West

Muslim Influence:

Muslim Influence Islam has a long historical influence in Batangas, but recent archaeological and other evidence suggests Islam has had some cultural and religious influence in the ancient Batangas (Kumintang).

Cultural Influence:

Cultural Influence Culture (/ˈ kʌltʃər /) is, in the words of E.B. Tylor , "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." (Tylor 1871:1 ) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clothing:

Clothing A Hijab (hee-jab), also spelled ḥijāb (/hɪˈdʒɑːb/, /hɪˈdʒæb/, /ˈhɪ.dʒæb/ or /hɛˈ dʒɑːb /; Arabic: حجاب‎, pronounced [ħiˈdʒæːb] or [ħiˈɡæːb]), is a veil that covers the head and chest, which is often worn by Muslim women beyond the age of puberty in the presence of adult males outside of their immediate family as a form of modest attire. According to some interpretations, it may also be worn in the presence of adult non-Muslim females outside of their immediate family. The hijab can further denote any head, face or body covering worn by Muslim women that similarly conforms to a certain standard of modesty. It can also be used to refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, or it may embody a metaphysical dimension – Al-hijab refers to "the veil which separates man or the world from God".[5] In fact the word "veil" derives from a Latin word which means much the same as hijab.

Tuli:

Tuli Circumcision Etymology: Tuley

Name of Place :

Name of Place Hulo, Solo, Mabini (Jolo, Solo)

Joloanos Mahometanos in Batangas:

Joloanos Mahometanos in Batangas by Fray Pedro Andres de Castro / Historia de la Provincia de Batangas (1790 ) Tambien habia aqui muchos Mindanaos, Joloanos Mahometanos de profesion.

Religious Influence:

Religious Influence

Slide91:

Expressions

Slide92:

"panahon pa ni Mahoma" Muhammad , Mohammed o Mahomet (Arabic : محمد‎; c. 570 – 8 June 632[1]), full name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim ( ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم)

Slide93:

Ala eh (Allah y) [Ala'y]

Slide94:

Incidentally, there is in Batangas a term related to God with Semitic origin. Unfortunately, it has already been relegated into insignificance understood simply as expression of awe or surprise – “Ala eh” similar to Tausug “Alla ah.” Obviously, both terms are nuanced of the word “Allah.” It suggests that early inhabitants in a place like Batangas has a concept of God related to Semitic term “Allah .” by Julkipli Wadi is Associate Professor of Islamic Studies, University of the Philippines

Islam map of Kumintang:

Islam map of Kumintang

References:

References Jesus Peralta, "Prehistoric Gold Ornaments CB Philippines," Arts of Asia, 1981, 4:54-60 Art Exhibit: Philippines' 'Gold of Ancestors'in Newsweek. Laszlo Legeza, “Tantric Elements in the Philippines PreHispanic Gold Arts,” Arts of Asia, 1988, 4:129-136 . Indian Origins of Filipino Customs Written by Vrndavan Parker Wikipedia

Slide97:

THE END

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