Drug abuse in animal

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Drug abuse in animal:

Drug abuse in animal Prepared by : MKDah Supervised by : Dr. Jehad Hammad

Slide 2:

"Despite repeated assertions by regulators that nearly all poultry products are free from detectable residues, figures show clearly that about 20% of chicken meat and 10% of the eggs tested contain residues of drugs deemed too dangerous for use in human medicine." Richard Young

Slide 3:

Cattle farming : “Dairy farming” Poultry farming

Quantity of meats available for consumption, 2009 to 2011:

Quantity of meats available for consumption, 2009 to 2011

Quantity of meats available for person, Canada & USA, 2000 to 2009:

Quantity of meats available for person, Canada & USA, 2000 to 2009

Slide 6:

Use of Hormones Use of Antibiotics

Use of Hormones:

Use of Hormones Began in 1948 Using hormones to boost egg production, but was abandoned because it didn't work. Using hormones to produce soft- meated roasters The broilers got as big as anyone wanted them to get when they were still young enough to be soft- meated without chemicals. W as banned in 1959

In Cows:

In Cows Injecting cows with growth hormones known as recombinant BST or rBST to increases growth and milk production. BGH injections << Increase IGF production by the cow.

Slide 9:

IGF plays a role in the formation of new tumors and increased levels of IGF-1 may be linked to increased risk of breast, colon, and prostate cancer. IGF-1 is not denatured by pasteurization, so consumption of milk from rBST treated dairy cows will increase the daily intake of IGF-I . Further association of IGF with breast cancer was provided by a 20-year epidemiological study begun in 1976, which was published in 1997 .

Slide 10:

The European Union, Japan, Australiaand and New Zealand have banned its use due to these concerns. In the US however, no such prohibition exists, and approximately 17.2% of dairy cows are treated in this way.

In Chicken:

In Chicken Chickens grow much more rapidly than they once did by injecting them with growth hormones. Some consumers believe that the increasingly earlier onset of puberty in humans is the result of the liberal use of such hormones. Several scientific studies have documented the fact that chickens grow rapidly because they are bred to do so .

Soybeans:

Soybeans Farming of chickens on an industrial scale relies largely on high protein feeds derived from soybeans In the European Union the soybean dominates the protein supply for animal feed Two kilograms of grain must be fed to poultry to produce 1 kg of weight gain However , for every gram of protein consumed, chickens yield only 0.33 g of edible protein.

Antibiotics:

Therapeutic use. Non-therapeutic gain weight faster compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary living conditions. Antibiotics

How Do Antibiotics Improve Growth?:

The presence of antibiotics likely changes the composition of the gut flora to favor growth. Change may simply be a reduction in numbers, a change in species composition or a combination of the two. How Do Antibiotics Improve Growth?

Slide 15:

A low, continuous dose of antibiotic may : Eliminate bacteria that steal essential nutrients. Reduce competition allowing beneficial bacteria to multiply Control growth of bacteria that cause diseases. Enhance feed consumption and growth.

Slide 16:

Unfortunately, low dosages of antibiotics over an extended period is one of the best ways to promote the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria .

Slide 17:

Animal Antibiotic Antibiotic Family Penicillin Penicillin Chlortetracycline Tetracycline Virginiamycin Streptogramin Tylosin Macrolide Lincomycin Clindamycin Bacitracin Bacitracin Salinomycin AB + Coccidiostat Monensin Bambermycins Lasalocid The following antibiotics are approved for growth improvement in livestock:

How are Resistant Bacteria Transmitted from Animals to Humans?:

Direct transmission through food consumption Animal handlers “farm workers” Food handlers Environmental contamination How are Resistant Bacteria Transmitted from Animals to Humans ?

Scientific Reports on the Issue:

Scientific Reports on the Issue T he “Swann Report”, 1969 It is clear that there has been a dramatic increase over the years in the numbers of strains of enteric bacteria of animal origin which show resistance to one or more antibiotics .

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont.:

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont. FDA Task Force Report, 1970 That antimicrobial drugs used in human clinical should be prohibited from growth promotion and any subtherapeutic use in food-producing animals by certain dates.

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont.:

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont. European Commission Report, 1999 Four primary recommendations were forwarded Antimicrobial drugs should be used prudently I nfections should be prevented and resistant organisms contained R esearch for new modalities of prevention and treatment of infections should be undertaken T he effects of such interventions should be monitored and evaluated.

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont.:

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont. Report, “Joint FAO/WHO ”, 2003 There is clear evidence of adverse human health consequences due to resistant organisms resulting from non-human usage of antimicrobials . The amount and pattern of non-human usage of antimicrobials impact the occurrence of resistant bacteria in animals and on food commodities and thereby human exposure to these resistant bacteria. The consequences of antimicrobial resistance are particularly severe when pathogens are resistant to antimicrobials critically important in humans.

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont.:

Scientific Reports on the Issue cont. FDA report, June 28, 2010 Phased-in measures that would limit medically important antimicrobial drugs to uses in food-producing animals that are considered necessary for assuring animal health and that include veterinary oversight or consultation Developing a strategy to address antimicrobial resistance concerns in a manner that is protective of both human and animal health .

Slide 25:

The FDA has tried to limit the use of antibiotics in agriculture since 1969 , but its efforts have repeatedly collapsed in the face of opposition from the drug industry and farm lobby.

Argument:

Argument

With:

With About one in five chickens slaughtered for the dinner table contains traces of potentially dangerous drugs. Consumers might be at extra risk of cancer , heart attacks or producing defects in fetuses . Elimination of all non-therapeutic antibiotics in poultry, cow and swine production would cost consumers only $5 to $10 per person annually.

Against:

Against Veterinary medicines directorate pulled a " statistical trick " by asserting 99% of poultry meat and 97% of eggs were free of detectable residues . Low prices have helped create the surge in demand. Because the antibiotics used are not absorbed by the gut, they do not put antibiotics into the meat or eggs Poultry acquired resistance is much less than hospital acquired.

Against:

Against Dave Warner of the pork council " Show us the science that use of antibiotics in animal production is causing this antibiotic resistance," "How do we know [the problem] is not on the human side? Where is the science for you to go forward on this?"

Cases:

Cases In 1999, nicarbazin was found in 18% of chicken livers tested and in about 2% of eggs. Studies had shown it could cause birth defects and hormonal problems in animals. Lasalocid , which may damage the heart , was not even licensed for laying hens but had been found in one in every dozen eggs. It had also been detected in 12% of chicken muscle .

Cases cont.:

Cases cont. In October, 2000, (FDA) proposed to ban a class of antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones from use in poultry, Based on evidence that human resistance to this type of drug has risen dramatically since fluoroquinolones were approved for use in poultry in 1995. Fluoroquinolones are the drug-of-choice in treating severe foodborne illness in humans. The manufacturer of the drug (Bayer Corp.) has contested the ban, and the drug remains in use on poultry farms.

Cases cont.:

Cases cont . Roxarsone , an antimicrobial & coccidiostat drug that also promotes growth. Roxarsone was used as a broiler starter by about 70% of the broiler growers between 1995 to 2000 The drug has generated controversy because it contains arsenic , which is highly toxic to humans.

Slide 34:

Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is known to cause cancer and has been linked to heart disease , diabetes and declines in brain functions . More than 95% of the roxarsone fed to chickens is excreted unchanged in chicken waste, which is regularly applied as fertilizer on surrounding farm fields or used in commercial fertilizers .

Cases cont.:

Cases cont. When the anthrax threat emerged and people began clamoring for Ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics Three separate studies provided new information about the health consequences to humans of giving these drugs to livestock. published in the same issue of The New England Journal of Medicine (10/18/01 ). Antibiotic-resistant microbes were found to be prevalent in supermarket meat . Whether this resistance can be transferred to humans or not??

The first research team:

The first research team Purchased 200 ground meat samples at three supermarkets in the Washington. The samples included ground chicken, beef, turkey, and pork. Resistant strains of salmonella were found to be common : 84 % were resistant to at least one antibiotic 53 % were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Suggests it can transferred to human.

The second study:

The second study Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Purchased chicken from 26 supermarkets in four states. Discovered that 17% of the chicken showed strains of Enterococcus faecum resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin . Testing 334 stool samples collected from people who sought care at a clinic. Only 1% contained this drug-resistant strain The possibility of transfer is small .

The third study:

The third study Involved 18 healthy volunteers Randomly assigned to ingest one of three different antibiotic-resistant bacteria. They found that drug-resistant microbes survive for up to 14 days after ingestion. Found that antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are transferred to humans.

What Should Be Done?:

What Should Be Done ? Poultry & cattle producers should voluntarily stop buying or selling antibiotics for non-therapeutic use. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should ban the non-therapeutic use antibiotic. Don’t fed antibiotics to the animals several days before they are slaughtered. Handwashing

What Should Be Done? Cont.:

What Should Be Done ? Cont. R eevaluate any antibiotic use to improve growth, If no benefit is realized, don't use it. Ask your veterinarian for advice on strategies to optimize herd or flock health. Veterinarian shouldn’t sell drugs. Consider the use of approved alternative products that improve growth.

THE ALTERNATIVES TO ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTERS:

THE ALTERNATIVES TO ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTERS In-feed enzymes Competitive exclusion products Probiotics Infection control measures

What about Gaza??:

What about Gaza??

Uses of antibiotics & hormones:

Uses of antibiotics & hormones Therapeutic use for animal treatment. Prophylaxis Vitamins and hormones used to gain weight but not antibiotics. Poultry feed contain c occidiostat antibiotics.

Most common animal antibiotics in Gaza:

Most common animal antibiotics in Gaza Penicillin Coccidiostat Ciprofloxacin Trimethoprime-sulphadiazine Ivermectin Tetramisole Bromhexine Tetracycline Erythromycin Neomycin

Fattening Needles-Myth or Truth??:

Fattening Needles-Myth or Truth?? + = Don’t contain any substance routinely used as weight gainer. Only contain abtibiotics , Penicillin, Virginiamycin , Bacitracin, etc. Used to ensure rapid reach of drug to blood and whole body << shortening duration of disease ??

Who describes drugs ?:

Who describes drugs ? Poultry farm : The farmer may treat the usual symptoms that he has previously seen otherwise the Veterinary Clinic is the option.

Who describes drugs ? Cont.:

Who describes drugs ? Cont. Cattle farm : Due to size issues, it's very difficult to take the cow to the vet. So, the owner prefers to treat the cows by himself If things get complicated, he brings the vet to see the cow at farm.

After how long the treated animal is being sold?:

After how long the treated animal is being sold? Poultry farm : The waiting period usually depends on the market price. Waiting period range 2 – 3 days. Some drugs, i.e . gentamicin waiting period reach 20-30 day.

After how long the treated animal is being sold? Cont.:

After how long the treated animal is being sold ? Cont. Cattle farm : During the year selling of cattles is usually delayed until full recovery. But during the days before El- Adha Eid the things rushed out to catch the season

Treat all animals, or just the infected animal ?:

Treat all animals, or just the infected animal ? Poultry farm : I t's hard to isolate infected chicken Large number in small area << Very communicable Treat them all, by inserting the medicine into their drinking water

Treat all animals, or just the infected animal ? Cont.:

Treat all animals, or just the infected animal ? Cont. Cattle farm : The suspected cow is being isolated & treated individually

The role of Ministry of Agriculture:

The role of Ministry of Agriculture من مهام الإدارة العامة للخدمات البيطرية وصحة الحيوان إعداد وتطبيق برامج الوقاية من جميع الأمراض التي تصيب الحيوانات والدواجن، وهذا بدراسة وتشخيص جميع الأمراض التي تظهر في الثروة الحيوانية، وإقرار أنجع السبل للتخلص من هذه الأمراض. وضع البرامج للتخلص من الأمراض المشتركة خصوصاً في الحيوانات، للحد من انتقالها إلى الإنسان، كذلك يجري التعاون مع وزارة الصحة لاستكمال القضاء على هذه الأمراض. علاج جميع الحالات المرضية التي تظهر في الحيوانات ومحاصرتها والحد من انتشارها. العمل على ترخيص وتسجيل الأدوية البيطرية، وتنظيم استعمالها لما لها من علاقة بصحة المواطن. الاتصال بالمنظمات الدولية ذات العلاقة، مثل : الصحة العالمية، ومنظمة الأوبئة العالمية، وتلقي المعلومات عن الأمراض ومدى انتشارها، وما يستجد من معلومات وأمراض قد تؤثر على الصحة العامة وصحة الحيوان.

IS it safe to consume chickens & cows that have been fed antibiotics? :

IS it safe to consume chickens & cows that have been fed antibiotics?

Slide 55:

Thanks Any question

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