Grammar Book

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Grammar Book :

G rammar Book Por Leslie Flores 1

Table of Contents :

Table of Contents Constructions with se ……………………………………….……………….slide 3 Adverbs…...……………………………………………….…………………..slide 4 Preterite vs. Imperfect……………………………………………………....slide 5 Por vs. Para…………………. ……………………………………….………..slide 6 Stressed Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns……………...…………..slide 7 Commands informal/formal/ nosotros /irregulars/affirmative/negative................ .slide 8 Object Pronoun Placement (IOP/DOP/SE ) ………………………….…..slide 9 Present Subjunctive ………………………………………………..……….slide 10 Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence ……………………….….slide 11 2

Constructions with se:

Constructions with se In impersonal constructions, the person doing the action is not said. T hird person singular form  singular noun T hird person plural forms  plural nouns Often, se is used in signs and advertisements. 3 Can be used to say that the accident or event wasn’t the person’s fault. Se+ Indirect object pronoun+ Verb+ Subject Se me cay ó la pluma . A+[noun] or a+[prepositional phrase] is sometimes used to say who is involved. Used with se to describe unplanned events Caer Dañar Olvidar Perder Queder Romper

Adverbs:

Adverbs Adverbs describe how, when, and where actions take place. They also modify verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs. Most end in – mente . To form adverbs, just add – mente to the feminine form of the word. If they word doesn’t have one, then just add – mente to the end. Adverbs that end in - mente , follow the word they modify. 4 Examples Lentamente Verdaderamente Generalmente Simplemente Common Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases A menudo A tiempo Así Casi Menos poco

Preterite vs Imperfect:

Preterite vs Imperfect 5 Preterite Uses Actions that occurred at a fixed point Actions in the past that happened multiple times Actions that occurred in a specific enclosed period of time Actions that are part of a chain of events. Sudden changes of mood, feelings or opinions. Associated with phrases that pinpoint a particular occasion or specific time frame. Imperfect Uses To refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly To refer to actions in the past that occurred over an extended period of time To "set the stage" for an event that occurred in the past With actions which are not physical Associated with phrases that describe the frequency of past actions Preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed Imperfect is used for past actions that didn’t have a known beginning or a known end. Preterite tells us specifically when an action took place. Imperfect tells us in general when an action took place.

Por vs Para:

Por vs P ara 6 Both mean for Uses Destination Deadline or a specific time in the future Purpose or goal+ [infinitive] Purpose+ [noun/verb] The recipient of something Comparisions or opinions Employment

Stressed Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

Stressed Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns 7 Adjectives Used for emphasis or to express mine, yours, his, etc. They have to agree with gender and number with the noun being modified. They are placed after the noun that they modify. Pronouns They are used to replace a noun + a possessive adjective They are followed by a definite article. They agree in gender and number with the noun they replace. Singular Plural M F M ío M ía Nuestro Nuestra M F M íos M ías Nuestros Nuestras La calculadora nuestra  la nuestra El fax tuyo  el tuyo Los archivos suyos  los suyos

Commands informal/formal/nosotros/irregulars/affirmative/negative:

Commands informal / formal / nosotros / irregulars / affirmative / negative Commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something . Informal is used when talking to a friend, coworker, relative, or a child. Formal is used to be polite. Nosotros is used when the speaker is included. Irregulars only occur with affirmative commands. Use the tú form of the present subjunctive with the verb. 8 Affirmative is used to tell a friend, family member, classmate, child, or pet to do something. Negative uses no in front of the verb to tell the person not to do something.

Object Pronoun Placement (IOP/DOP/SE):

IOP follows the same placement rules as DOP . In affirmative sentences with one simple verb, the IOP goes before the verb. Ex: Le tiro la pelota . In negative sentences with one simple verb, the IOP goes between the negative and the verb. Object Pronoun Placement ( IOP / DOP / SE ) 9 The DOP comes before the verb in an affirmative sentence with one simple verb. Ex: Carmen lo lee . In the case of infinitives and present participles you either can attach DOP to the end of the verb, or you can put it before the first verb . Ex: Voy a hacer la . / La voy a hacer . While you attach direct object pronouns to the end of affirmative commands, you always place them between no (or other negative word) and the verb in a negative command . Ex: Léa lo . The se form of the indirect object pronoun can either refer to a third person singular or plural when both direct and indirect object pronouns are used . Ex: Yo se lo dono .

Present Subjunctive:

Present Subjunctive The person’s attitude towards events, actions, or states that the speaker is uncertain or hypothetical about. Used usually in a sentence with a main clause and a subordinate clause. The word que connects the subordinate clause to the main clause. - Ar and – er have the same stem changes as they do in the present indicative. - Ir has the same stem change as the present indicative. 10 Used to Express: Will of Influence Emotion Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Indefiniteness and nonexistence - Ar and - Er Pensar (e to ie ) Piense , Pienses , Piense , Pensemos , Pens éis , Piensen Mostrar (o to ue ) Muestre , Muestres , Muestre , Mostremos , Mostr éis , Muestren - Ir Pedir (e to i ) Pida . Pidas , Pida , Pidamos , Pid áis , Pidan Sentir (e to ie ) Sienta , Sientas , Sienta , Sintamos , Sint áis , Sientan Dormir (o to ue ) Duerma , Duermas , Duerma , Durmamos , Durm áis , Duerman

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence:

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Subjunctive of will and influence affect the actions and behaviors of others. To use it, you start with a main clause . After that you add the connector que . Then you finish it with a subordinate clause . Ex: El profesor quiere que los estudiantes pasan la prueba . 11 Examples of Verbs Desear Necesitar Pedir Preferir Querer Aconsar Importar Insistir Mandar Prohibir Recomendar Rogar Sugerir Examples of Expressions Es necesario que Es importante que Es mejor que Es urgente que