Artificial Intelligence

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INTRODUCTION WHAT IS A.I.? Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a subfield of computer science closely tied with biology and cognitive science AI is concerned with computing techniques and models that simulate/investigate intelligent behavior AI research builds upon our understanding of the brain and evolutionary development in return, AI research provides insights into the way the brain works, as well as the larger process of biological evolution In other words, A.I . is The Part Of Computer Science Concerned With The Design Of Computer Systems Which Exhibit The Attributes Of Human Intelligence Such As understanding Of Languages, Learning New Information, Reasoning, Solving Problems, Planning, Perception And Creativity.


INTRODUCTION Proposed by Alan Turing(1950), a British Computer Scientist. Intelligence is defined as the ability to achieve human level performance in all cognitive tests, sufficient to fool a human interrogator. The test was devised in response to the question, ” Can a computer think ?”. Result was +ve if interrogator can not tell if responses are coming from the M/C or Human. TURING TEST


INTRODUCTION One person sits at a computer and types the questions. The computer is connected to two other hidden computers At one computer, Human reads and responds to questions. At the other end, computer with no Human aid runs the program to provide responses. If the machine can convince, the machine passes the TURING TEST. TURING TEST


INTRODUCTION What is Intelligence ?




BRANCHES Facts about the world have to be represented in some way. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used. Representation Common Sense, Knowledge and Reasoning This is an era in which AI is farthest from human level. While there has been considerable progress, e.g. in development systems of non monotonic reasoning and theories of action. Planning programs start with general facts about the world. They generate a strategy for achieving the goal, the strategy is just a sequence of action. Planning


BRANCHES It is a technique for getting programs to solve a task by mating random LISP programs and selecting fittest in millions of generations. Epistemology This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are required for solving problems in the world. Ontology It is the study of kinds of things that exist. In AI, things deal with various kinds of object. Genetic Engineering


APPLICATIONS OF A.I. Expert systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP). Speech recognition. Computer vision. Robotics. Automatic Programming.


APPLICATIONS EXPERT SYSTEMS An Expert System is a computer program designed to act as an expert in a particular domain (area of expertise). Expert systems are currently designed to assist experts, not to replace them, they have been used in medical diagnosis, chemical analysis, geological explorations etc.


APPLICATIONS The primary interactive method of communication used by humans is not reading and writing, it is speech. The goal of speech recognition research is to allow computers to understand human speech. So that they can hear our voices and recognize the words we are speaking. It simplifies the process of interactive communication between people and computers, thus it advances the goal of NLP. Speech Recognition


APPLICATIONS The goal of NLP is to enable people and computers to communicate in a natural (humanly) language(such as, English) rather than in a computer language. Natural Language Processing The field of NLP is divided in 2 categories— Natural Language understanding. Natural Language generation


APPLICATIONS The goal of computer vision research is to give computers this same powerful facility for understanding their surrounding. Here AI helps computer to understand what they see through attached cameras. Computer Vision People generally use vision as their primary means of sensing their environment, we generally see more than we hear, feel or smell or taste. ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid obstacles and navigate stairs.


APPLICATIONS A Robot is a electro-mechanical device that can be programmed to perform manual tasks or a reprogrammable multi functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for performance of variety of tasks. An ‘intelligent’ robot includes some kind of sensory apparatus that allows it to respond to change in it’s environment. Robotics


APPLICATIONS Programming is a process of telling a computer exactly what you want it to do. Writing a program is a tedious job. It must be designed, written, tested, debugged and evaluated. The goal of automatic planning is to create special programs that act intelligent tools to assist programmers and expedite each phase of programming process. Ultimate aim is computer itself should develop a program in accordance with specifications of programmer. Automatic Programming


CONVENTIONAL VS AI PROGRAMS Conventional Programs Definite algorithms let completely well defined steps of solution. Uses data structures like arrays, records, lists etc . Predominantly manipulates numbers, characters objects. Deterministic well defined and will bounded problem. Predefined data. Primitive user interface. AI Programs There is no definite algorithm . Uses knowledge representation semantic nets, predicate logic etc. Manipulates macros, symbols . Open ended, large and problem uncertainty dominate. Dynamic data ( due to knowledge acquisition). Sophisticated user interface.


FUTURE The day is not far when you will just sit back in your cozy little beds and just command your personal Robot's to entirely do your chores . He will be a perfect companion for you. Just enjoy the Technology.


FUTURE But wait, don’t be happy. It may end in other way too. Some day there will be a knock to your door. As you open it, you see a large number of Robots marching into your house destroying everything you own and looting you. This is because ever since there is an advantage in the Technology, it attracts anti-social elements. This is true for Robots too. Because now they will have full power to think as human, even as of anti-social elements. So think trice before giving them power of Cognition.


CONCLUSION In it’s short existence, AI has increased understanding of the nature of intelligence and provided an impressive array of application in a wide range of areas. It has sharpened understanding of human reasoning, and of the nature of intelligence in general. At the same time, it has revealed the complexity of modeling human reasoning providing new areas and rich challenges for the future.

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