Lilleston Understanding Social Norms and Violence in Childhood

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Full Terms Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformationjournalCodecphm20 Download by: 86.22.250.23 Date: 03 February 2017 At: 07:29 Psychology Health Medicine ISSN: 1354-8506 Print 1465-3966 Online Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cphm20 Understanding social norms and violence in childhood: theoretical underpinnings and strategies for intervention P. S. Lilleston L. Goldmann R. K. Verma J. McCleary-Sills To cite this article: P. S. Lilleston L. Goldmann R. K. Verma J. McCleary-Sills 2017: Understanding social norms and violence in childhood: theoretical underpinnings and strategies for intervention Psychology Health Medicine DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2016.1271954 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2016.1271954 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Informa UK Limited trading as Taylor Francis Group Published online: 09 Jan 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 201 View related articles View Crossmark data

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Psychology health Medicine 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2016.1271954 Understanding social norms and violence in childhood: theoretical underpinnings and strategies for intervention P . S. Lilleston a L. Goldmann b R. K. Verma c and J. McCleary-Sills a a international center for Research on Women Washington dc Usa b consultant Raleigh nc Usa c international c enter for Research on Women new d elhi india ABSTRACT Violence in childhood is a widespread human rights violation that crosses cultural social and economic lines. Social norms the shared perceptions about others that exist within social groups are a critical driver that can either prevent or perpetuate violence in childhood. This review defnes injunctive and descriptive social norms and lays out a conceptual framework for the relationship between social norms and violence in childhood including the forces shaping social norms the mechanisms through which these norms infuence violence in childhood e.g. fear of social sanctions internalization of normative behavior and the drivers and maintainers of norms related to violence in childhood. It further provides a review of theory and evidence- based practices for shifting these social norms including strategic approaches targeting social norms directly changing attitudes to shift social norms and changing behavior to shift social norms core principles e.g. using public health frameworks and intervention strategies e.g. engaging bystanders involving stakeholders using combination prevention. As a key driver of violence in childhood social norms should be an integral component of any comprehensive efort to mitigate this threat to human rights. Understanding how people’s perceptions are shaped propagated and ultimately altered is crucial to preventing violence in childhood. Introduction Violence in childhood is a widespread human rights violation that crosses cultural social and economic lines UNICEF 2014. Worldwide at least 23 of adults report experienc- ing physical abuse as a child 36 report experiencing emotional abuse and 16.3 report experiencing physical neglect Hillis Mercy Amobi Kress 2016. Violence in childhood occurs in a variety of contexts – from the home and family to schools and communities – and manifests in various ways within diferent types of relationships. Both boys and girls expe- rience violence in childhood but difer in the nature of the violence experienced Landers 2013 UNICEF 2014. Violence experienced in childhood can be direct – when a child experiences aggression – or indirect when she or he witnesses the aggression Fleckman KEYWORDS social norms norms violence childhood children ARTICLE HISTORY Received 16 september 2016 a ccepted 23 o ctober 2016 © 2017 t he a uthors. Published by informa UK limited trading as taylor Francis group. this is an open a ccess article distributed under the terms of the creative c ommons attribution-nonc ommercial-nod erivatives license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ which permits non-commercial re-use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered transformed or built upon in any way. CONTACT P . s. lilleston plillestonicrw.org OPEN ACCESS

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2 P . S. LILLESTON ET AL. Drury Taylor Teall 2016. Direct violence includes both interpersonal violence and self-directed violence Krug Mercy Dahlberg Zwi 2002. Te repercussions of violence in childhood are powerful and enduring. Early abuse can hinder brain development leading to long term problems with learning and cognitive ability Landers 2013. Childhood violence additionally increases survivors’ likelihood of depres - sion anxiety aggression criminal behavior and self-abuse Landers 2013. Te efects may be particularly pronounced among female survivors who experience more severe economic repercussions complete fewer years of education and have lower IQ levels as a result of childhood violence than their male counterparts Currie Widom 2010. Children who live in homes and neighborhoods with high levels of intimate partner violence IPV or other forms of physical and emotional violence are more likely to experience clinical disorders aggression irritability and interpersonal difculties and may be more likely to perpetrate IPV as adults Edleson 1999 Klugman et al. 2014 Schwab-Stone et al. 1995 Wolfe Crooks Lee McIntyre-Smith Jafe 2003. Additionally the economic costs of childhood violence are high it increases health welfare and criminal justice expenditures while decreasing rates of productivity and property values WHO 2016 Zielinski 2009. Regardless of its type or context violence in childhood is a social problem embedded within a broader social ecology with risk factors existing at the individual interpersonal household community and societal levels Craig et al. 2009 Dunne Salvi 2014 Feldman- Jacobs Clifon 2014 UNICEF 2014 Young Hassan 2016. Social norms are a key aspect of this social ecology that can either prevent or perpetuate violence in childhood Bhatla Achyut Khan W alia 2015 Boyce Zeledón T ellez Barrington 2016 Carlson et al. 2015. Tis paper describes the relationship between social norms and violence in childhood. It defnes social norms conceptualizes them with respect to their infuence on violence in childhood and provides key mechanisms and strategies for efective social norms change processes. Methods From June through August 2016 the authors conducted a review and synthesis of the peer-reviewed and grey literature based on experts’ knowledge of the literature and a search of scholarly databases. T o capture the multidisciplinary swath of research on the subject the investigators used PubMed Google Scholar and Web of Science. Te references in prior - ity citations were also reviewed for additional relevant sources. Only articles published in English were considered for this review. While not systematic this review was intended to provide an overview of the literature as well as practical and theoretical linkages between social norms and violence in childhood. Defning social norms Social norms are shared perceptions about others that exist within social groups and are maintained through group approval and disapproval Mackie Moneti Denny Shakya 2012. Tere are two broad types of social norms: 1. descriptive norms: perceptions about what members of social groups do and 2. injunctive norms: perceptions about what mem- bers of a social group think others ought and ought not to do Cialdini Reno Kallgren 1990 Rimal Real 2005.

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PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH MEDICINE 3 While descriptive norms characterize perceptions about the prevalence of a certain behavior injunctive norms describe the extent to which individuals feel pressured- through either perceived social benefts or sanctions- to engage in a certain behavior. What is com- monly referred to as social norms can refect behaviors attitudes beliefs and moral judge- ments about what behaviors are “right” . In order for a social norm to be perpetuated the majority of people do not need to believe it is right or true but rather perceive that others in their social group believe it to be right or true Berkowitz 2003. And social norms do not necessarily refect reality members of a social group may think that a belief or behavior is prevalent within their social group when in actuality it is not Borsari Carey 2003. Social norms are linked to but distinct from both personal attitudes and individual behavior. Individual behavior is what one does whereas norms refect what one think or believes others do. Personal attitudes are the extent to which a person evaluates something with favor or disfavor Eagly Chaiken 2007. Social norms personal attitudes and indi- vidual behavior all infuence each other. However research suggests that in cases when social norms and personal attitudes are incongruous social norms may in fact exert a more powerful infuence on individuals’ behavior Asch 1951 Mackie et al. 2012 Nolan Schultz Cialdini Goldstein Griskevicius 2008. Tis can mean that an individual behaves in a way that adheres to what she or he believes others deem acceptable even if this behavior is inconsistent with her or his own beliefs. Conceptual framework: social norms and violence in childhood Forces shaping social norms Social norms are not formed within a vacuum. Rather they are shaped by larger environ- mental forces including culture religion policy and regulation and economics. In Peru for example daughters have less economic potential compared to sons which drives social norms permissive of parental neglect Larme 1997. In countries such as Sierra Leone and Guinea with high prevalence of female genital mutilation social norms related to the practice are strongly rooted in cultural and religious beliefs suggesting it enhances fertility and promotes female purity Gruenbaum 2005 Sipsma et al. 2012. Additionally in South Asia social norms related to child marriage are perpetuated by an entrenched system of patriarchy which denies women and girls rights to their own body and sexuality Malhotra et al. 2011. Mechanisms through which social norms infuence violence in childhood Social norms are one way that violence “transmits” within groups Ransford Slutkin 2016. Trough the fear of social sanctions desire to win approval and internalization of normative behavior perceived social norms can infuence people to perpetrate condone or challenge violence Bandura 2004 Fishbein Ajzen 1977 Marcus Harper 2014. Te motivation to avoid sanctions and win approval from one’s social group is a powerful force grounded in human physiology. Te brain experiences social and physical pain in similar ways sometimes driving people to conform with social norms even if they personally disagree with the dominant attitude or behavior Bandura 1986 Marcus Harper 2014. Additionally people are socialized into specifc norms starting at a young age allowing

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4 P . S. LILLESTON ET AL. certain ideas and behaviors to be taken for granted as the only way to think or act. Fear of stigma guilt and shame all contribute to the maintenance of common practices by dis- couraging individuals from challenging prevailing norms Marcus Harper 2014 Posner Rasmusen 1999. Drivers and maintainers of social norms related to violence in childhood Figure 1 adapted from Marcus and Harper’s 2014 framework highlights many of the forces that can be harnessed or targeted in order to shif the social norms that infuence vio - lence in childhood. Te framework illustrates the broad factors that shape social norms e.g. economics culture law the bidirectional relationships between social norms individual attitudes and perpetration of violence as well as the infuence of social norms on childhood violence in diferent contexts. It further identifes points for intervention including those factors that serve to maintain or change social norms related to violence in childhood. Forces that maintain violence in childhood include existing power dynamics e.g. gender inequality perceived lack of agency in children Blanchet-Cohen UNICEF 2009 Paluck Ball Poynton Sielof 2010 prevalent violent behaviors e.g. domestic violence com- munity violence social and psychological processes e.g. the rewards of complying with social norms Ransford Slutkin 2016 Rimal Real 2005 and insufcient structural intervention e.g. lack of legal protections for children Landers 2013. Forces that drive change around violence in childhood on the other hand include shifing power struc- tures e.g. giving children a voice Blanchet-Cohen UNICEF 2009 social movements that condemn violent practices e.g. coalition-led eforts by children’s rights NGOs media campaigns Grugel Peruzzotti 2010 Paluck et al. 2010 and policy change e.g. imple- mentation of laws that punish violent behavior UNICEF 2014. Te framework also provides some insight into why some social norms are more resistant to change than others. For example a Conditional Cash Transfer program in India provided Figure 1. conceptual framework for the relationship between and forces shaping social norms and violence in childhood.

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PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH MEDICINE 5 a fnancial incentive for families to keep their daughters from marrying in childhood with the additional aims of improving girls’ education and increasing their perceived value. While the program changed norms and practices surrounding education for girls and reduced child marriage it had very little impact on the deeply and culturally entrenched gender norms that drive early marriage in India e.g. undervaluing girls compared to boys and may have even reinforced these norms by providing additional income to ofset the costs of getting girls married Nanda Datta Pradhan Das Lamba 2016. Intervening to shift social norms Both theory and practice provide useful insight into how interventions can shif the social norms that promote violence in childhood. Human actions are interdependent the choices of one individual inevitably afect the choices of others Mackie 1996 2000 Schelling 1980. Terefore interventions aimed at shifing social norms address the interconnected nature of social groups while focusing on changing individuals’ perceptions. Efective social norm change interventions tend to accomplish this in one of three ways: 1 by targeting social norms directly 2 by changing attitudes and beliefs to shif social norms or 3 by changing behaviors to shif social norms. Target social norms directly Some interventions directly target descriptive norms by informing their audience of what their peers do or do not do e.g. 88 of men in your neighborhood do not spank their children and/or injunctive norms by informing their audience of what their peers do or do not think e.g. 90 of men in your neighborhood think it is wrong to spank a child Burchell Rettie Patel 2013. Tese interventions tend to be informed by a schema change approach in which countering evidence is provided in order to alter socially shared beliefs about a given issue Rousseau 2001. One way that interventions provide countering evidence is through the use of opinion leaders within social groups to openly demonstrate desired behaviors and opinions thus shifing people’s perceptions of what others in their social group do and think through the presentation of alternative social norms Carter 2000. Tese interventions tend to be informed by “Difusion of Innovations” theory which posits that ideas are propagated by infuential and open-minded protagonists who facilitate the introduction of new ideas into a social group. A late majority then adopts the ideas afer a tipping point is reached and social norm change quickly proliferates Rogers Shoemaker 1971. Some research suggests that interventions targeting both descriptive and injunctive social norms may be most efective in ultimately changing behaviors as opposed to interventions that target descriptive norms alone Schultz Nolan Cialdini Goldstein Griskevicius 2007. Table 1 provides examples of programmatic approaches that directly target social norms in order to reduce violence in childhood. Change attitudes and beliefs to shift social norms Other interventions target social norms indirectly by changing people’ s attitudes and beliefs. Tese interventions are ofen informed by health behavior change theories and models

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6 P . S. LILLESTON ET AL. such as the Health Belief Model which seeks to shif attitudes by introducing people to the harmful efects of a given behavior and the benefts of avoiding that behavior Rosenstock 1974. Such interventions posit that if enough people within a social group shif their atti- tudes towards a given behavior eventually the injunctive norms related to that behavior will also change. Te Gender Equity Movement in Schools GEMS for example worked with boys and girls ages 12–14 in Mumbai India to shif students’ attitudes and beliefs related to gender-roles violence and health. Trough group discussion engagement with teachers and a school-based campaign the intervention improved students’ attitudes towards equi- table gender roles physical violence and sexual and reproductive health in turn shifing social norms among the school children in these areas as well Achyut Bhatla Verma 2015. For example the proportion of male and female program participants reporting gender-equitable attitudes more than doubled afer six months Achyut et al. 2015. Table 2 provides additional examples of programmatic approaches that target attitudes to shif social norms related to violence in childhood. Table 1. Programmatic approaches that directly target social norms related to violence in childhood. Community Mobilization t he Green Dot Campaign frst implemented in high schools in Kentucky Usa utilizes a difusion of innovations approach by training “popular opinion leaders” to motivate others in their social groups to be active bystanders should they witness sexual assault in schools communities and military bases. it utilizes peer-infuence to shift social norms and eventually behavior around identifcation of and intervention in sexual assault. a 5 year randomized control trial of the campaign on university campuses indicates that the intervention signifcantly reduced interpersonal violence victimization rates and interpersonal violence perpetration rates including stalking sexual harassment and psycholog- ical violence c oker et al. 2016 c ook-craig et al. 2014. t he Good School Toolkit is a multisector intervention that recruits school employees students and parents to create a nurturing safe school environment for children. t he toolkit recruits student and staf “protagonists” to facilitate activities e.g. hanging codes of conduct in visible places painting murals facilitating conversations that aim to shift corporal punishment practices perpetrated by teachers in schools. By engaging these opinion leaders to introduce new ideas around corporal punishment the intervention encourages teachers to question their perceived social norms eventually changing their own attitudes and behaviors. a t baseline more than 60 of Ugandan students reported experiencing daily violence at school. however after the 18-month intervention the risk of physical violence against children by school staf reduced by 42 and self-reported rates of violence by teachers reduced by 50 d evries et al. 2015. Tostan’s Community Empowerment Program uses a difusion of innovations approach to impact violent tradition- al practices including female genital cutting Fgc . By training program participants about the harms of Fgc and encouraging them to voice their new knowledge and opinions to their social networks through social mobilization teams radio programs and inter-village meetings the program uses peer infuence to shift social norms and behaviors around these practices. in senegal communities that participated in the program showed a signifcant decrease in the prevalence of Fgc among girls age 10 and younger compared to the comparison communities diop askew 2009. Mass Media/ Social Marketing Program H in Brazil utilized a variety of approaches including social marketing through billboards and radio to target young men and adolescent boys aged 15–24 to reduce dating violence perpetrated against adolescent girls. t he program directly targeted injunctive and descriptive norms with messages often conveyed by male celebrities that indicated men in the community support gender-equitable behaviors. an evaluation of the program found that fol- lowing 6 months of program exposure males in the intervention sites showed signifcant increases in gender equitable attitudes compared to males in the comparison sites Pulerwitz Barker segundo nascimento 2006. an anti-bullying intervention targeting adolescents aged 11 to 14 in new Jersey Usa used posters hung in middle schools to disseminate social norms messages about the actual prevalence of positive attitudes and behaviors among peers e.g. “94 of ____ Middle school students believe students should not shove kick hit trip or hair pull another student. ”. t here were signifcant decreases in students’ perceptions of peer-bullying and pro-bullying attitudes as well as personal bullying perpetration and victimization in schools exposed to these messages Perkins craig Perkins 2011. Social Movement Bachpan Bachao Andolan the save the child movement is a grassroots social movement which seeks to eradicate child labor and trafcking in i ndia. t hrough its leadership of a large grassroots civil society campaign the global March a gainst child labor the movement works with a coalition of unions teachers’ organizations and child rights organiza- tions to shift perceptions around the acceptability of child labor and has contributed to numerous policy interventions including the adoption of the Right of children to Free and c ompulsory education Rte a ct in 2010 association for Voluntary a ction.

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PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH MEDICINE 7 Change behaviors to shift social norms Additional interventions target social norms by focusing on behaviors. Structural interven - tions for example seek to alter the structural context in order to make certain behaviors more or less easy to perform Blankenship Friedman Dworkin Mantell 2006. Tey may shif costs policies or the built environment. Formal laws for example impose sanctions which are less desirable than the informal social sanctions imposed by violating social norms Posner Rasmusen 1999. Conditional Cash Transfer interventions provide economic incentives to change behavior which may be stronger than the social sanctions imposed for violating a social norm Diepeveen Stolk 2012. Eventually the goal of a law or conditional cash transfer intervention is to change the prevalence of a behavior in turn shifing related descriptive and injunctive norms. However in some cases struc- tural interventions may shif behavior without ever changing the targeted social norms. For example the Apni Beta Apna Dhan ABAD Conditional Cash Transfer Program in India aimed to keep girls in school and unmarried until the age of 18 and also change community perceptions of girls’ value and ability to contribute to society. An evaluation showed that program participants were more likely to delay marriage until afer age 18 and to have completed 8th grade than non-participants. However the results suggest that there was no change in perceptions of the value of girls and that in fact the cash received was ofen used as dowry to marry girls to a more desirable suitor at the age of 18 or 19 Nanda et al. 2016. Although limited theory illuminates the pathways through which behavior change can shif social norms Blankenship et al. 2006 Nudge Teory provides one hypothesized mechanism. Nudge Teory suggests that making small changes to the built environment can “nudge” people towards more desirable behaviors without restricting their choices Leonard 2008. In theory if enough people are “nudged” into a certain practice it will eventually become a descriptive social norm. Table 3 provides several examples of programmatic approaches that target behaviors to shif social norms related to violence in childhood. Table 2. Programmatic approaches that target attitudes to shift social norms related to violence in child- hood. Small Group Training Sikhula Ndawonye a parenting program currently being tested in south a frica conducts group sessions with mothers of infants on child development reading a baby’s signals and calming babies. t he program hopes to promote positive parent-child interactions by increasing parents’ understanding of and attitudes towards their babies’ behavior. By creating support groups of women who all engage in positive healthy parenting practices the program aims to shift mothers perceptions of how others believe babies ought to be treated sVRi 2016. Mass Media/Social Marketing Soul City in south a frica was a comprehensive “edutainment” program aimed at reducing gender-based violence among adults and adolescents. it included a prime-time television series radio drama episode booklets and an advertising and public campaign that encouraged audiences to think critically about social norms that encourage gender-based violence. evaluation results indicate the campaign was efective in shifting attitudes towards more positive perceptions of gendered-equitable social norms. For example exposure to the intervention was associated with a 10 increase in respondents disagreeing that domestic violence should be kept private Usdin scheepers goldstein Japhet 2005. MTV’s A Thin Line campaign aims to end digital abuse among youth through online television and in-person initiatives. it includes Psas M t V news specials and an original movie called disconnected that aim to change youths’ attitudes around the safe use of digital technology ultimately shifting injunctive and descriptive norms. disconnected for example aimed to create new social norms around intervening in online abuse and perpetrating violence online by convincing youth that they should personally practice safer behavior online and confront those who perpetrate online abuse. a fter watching the movie the majority of youth viewers reported they would be more likely to confront someone who abuses them or a friend digitally would be less likely to forward inappropriate messages and believed spreading sexually explicit images of a person was an inappropriate activity harmony i nstitute 2012.

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8 P . S. LILLESTON ET AL. Core principles and strategies for social norm change interventions Tere are a number of core principles and strategies related to programmatic perspective or motivation and design that should be taken into account when planning interventions that target social norms related to violence in childhood. Te perspective that programs take to address violence in childhood is central to efective social norm change. Successful interventions ofen use public health frameworks that con- ceptualize violence as an issue that can be systematically studied and prevented Ransford Slutkin 2016. Cure Violence for example treats violence as a public health problem transmitted between individuals and social groups through in part social norms. Teir model suggests that preventing violence requires: interrupting violent confict identifying and treating people who are at highest risk for perpetrating violence and mobilizing social groups to change the social norms that drive violence Cure Violence 2016. Engaging girls and boys to critically examine gender norms and stereotypes has been efective in addressing the gender dynamics that perpetuate violence against children. For example the GEMS project works with students to evaluate attitudes and beliefs such as perceptions around “masculine” behavior that perpetuate gender-based violence in childhood Achyut et al. 2015. Last a rights-based perspective acknowledges existing power dynamics between victims and perpetrators while empowering individuals with resources and opportunities to make their own decisions Blanchet-Cohen UNICEF 2009 UNFPA 2016. Table 4 details specifc evidence-based strategies that have proven efective in operation- alizing these perspectives and approaches. Limitations Te authors used a traditional as opposed to systematic review process in order to research and write this manuscript. As such the theoretical and practice cases presented in the text should be considered illustrative examples rather than a comprehensive review of the theory and practice related to social norms and violence in childhood. Table 3. Programmatic and policy approaches that target behaviors to shift social norms related to vio- lence in childhood. Law and Policy in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province the Child Protection and Welfare Act of 2010 criminalized violence against children and abolished corporal punishment Know Violence in childhood 2016. By changing the policy environment around violence in childhood the law seeks to prevent violent behavior and in turn shift perceived social norms related to corporal punishment sexual violence and other forms of violence. in india the 1994 Hindu succession act reformed inheritance laws so that boys and girls were granted equal inher- itances by their families. t he law helped to change inheritance practices which altered social norms and shared beliefs about the value of boys and girls resulting in increases in both educational achievement and marital age of children deininger goyal nagarajan 2013. Community Mobilization Cure Violence which has been implemented in a variety of settings from the United states to south a frica shifts social norms around violence in communities in part by “interrupting” i.e. identifying and mediating potentially fatal con- ficts within communities. trained outreach workers help to prevent retaliations after shootings and mediate disputes thus reducing violent behavior which in turn changes the perceptions among community members that others in their social groups resolve confict through violence Butts Roman Bostwick Porter 2015. an evaluation of the program in Baltimore Maryland Usa found a 56 drop in homicides and a 34 decrease in non-fatal shootings after implementation of the program Webster Whitehill Vernick Parker 2012.

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PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH MEDICINE 9 Conclusion Te 2030 Sustainable Development Goals call on the international community to promote well-being and equality for all UNDP 2015. Violence in childhood is a public health problem that poses a threat to the health well-being and human rights of children and adults worldwide. Preventing violence in childhood requires a multi-sectoral response that unites the research program and advocacy communities to better understand implement and advocate for evidence-based responses to this urgent threat. 1 Social norms are a critical driver of violence in childhood that should be an integral component of any comprehensive efort to mitigate this threat to human rights. People’s perceptions particularly with regard to their own social groups are a powerful force in Table 4. strategies for social norm change interventions aimed at preventing violence in childhood. 1 Incorporating bystander training: social norm campaigns directed at the family and community levels should incor- porate bystander intervention training. in the case of childhood violence individuals cannot assume that others will intervene. instead potential bystanders should be trained in tested and safe strategies for intervention cismaru 2013. 2 Mobilizing community values: incorporate core values that are already shared in the community in intervention mes- saging instead of employing top-down negative messaging alexander-s cott Bell holden 2016. For example a campaign to prevent spanking might highlight the fact that globally 70 of adults do not believe corporal punish- ment is necessary for raising a child properly UniceF 2014. 3 Delivering combination prevention strategies: interventions that target multiple levels of engagement tend to be more efective than those that target one level only s allis o wen Fisher 2008. laws alone for example are rarely enough to change social norms. however interventions that engage families and communities in addition to alter- ing the legal environment may be efective in shifting social norms around violence in childhood. Voices for change in nigeria prevents violence against women and girls by supporting the passage of bills aimed at increasing gender equality while simultaneously engaging opinion leaders to spread ideas condemning violence against girls at the community level V4c n igeria 2014. 4 Involving stakeholders: c ollaborating with stakeholders who will take ownership over and support the social norm change intervention can help to ensure community buy-in and sustainability over time. Partners can range from traditional leaders to the private sector to children themselves Blanchet-c ohen UniceF 2009. t he good school toolkit for example engages teachers and administrators in schools as well as a team of community members to champion the program devries et al. 2015. 5 Planning for long-term engagement: although there is no required timeframe for social norm change to occur evalu- ations of successful interventions suggest that at least eighteen months to two years is required for sustained social norm change. 6 Avoiding the boomerang efect: Research suggests that social norms interventions can inadvertently increase undesirable behaviors by highlighting their high prevalence in communities. in communities where perpetration of violence is practiced by the majority interventions should instead use reward-focused messaging which celebrates individuals who practice the desired behavior Burchell et al. 2013. t he Menc are c ampaign for example celebrates engaged non-violent fathers José santos 2015. 7 Collecting sex-disaggregated data on violence in childhood: data on violence in childhood is very limited. to further understand what strategies are efective in shifting the social norms that drive violence in childhood it is neces- sary to collect data on violence particularly through community and population-based surveys Runyan Wattam ikeda hassan Ramiro 2002 UniceF 2014. t he U.s. c enters for disease c ontrol and Prevention’s Violence a gainst children surveys implemented in at least 11 countries across asia the c aribbean and east and southern a frica have been instrumental in awareness-raising around violence in childhood in some cases contributing to policy change chiang et al. 2016. 8 Making context-specifc prescriptions for change: Violence in childhood is context-specifc. i nterventions aimed at preventing violence in childhood should adapt best practices and theory-driven programming to ft the context in which they will be implemented alexander-s cott et al. 2016. t his includes understanding the culture around violence in childhood the nature of the system of message delivery and the culture of the target social group Berkowitz 2003 and can be achieved through formative research and local experience.

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10 P . S. LILLESTON ET AL. shaping human behavior. Understanding how these perceptions are shaped propagated and can ultimately be altered through evidence and theory driven programming is crucial to preventing violence in childhood. Note 1. Know Violence in Childhood is one such efort to unite the international community around childhood violence prevention through mapping consultations thematic papers and advocacy. Acknowledgements Tis work was supported by the Know Violence in Childhood Initiative. We thank Ramya Subrahmanian for her comments on earlier drafs. Disclosure statement No potential confict of interest was reported by the authors. Funding Tis work was supported by Know Violence in Childhood. References Achyut P . Bhatla N. V erma R. 2015. Questioning gender norms to promote sexual reproductive health among early adolescents: Evidence from a school-based program in Mumbai India. Gender- Based Violence 195–213. Springer. Alexander-Scott M. Bell E. Holden K. 2016. DFID guidance note: Shifing social norms to tackle violence against women and girls VA WG. London: DFID V AWG Helpdesk. Asch S. E. 1951. Efects of group pressure upon the modifcation and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow Ed. Groups leadership and men 222–236. Association for V oluntary Action. Bachpan Bachao Andolan. Retrieved from http://www.bba.org.in/ Bandura A. 1986. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Clifs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura A. 2004. Social cognitive theory for personal and social change by enabling media. In A. Singhal M. J. Cody E. M. Rogers M. Sabido Eds. Entertainment-education and social change: History research and practice pp. 75–96. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Berkowitz A. D. 2003. Applications of social norms theory to other health and social justice issues. In Te social norms approach to preventing school and college age substance abuse: A handbook for educators counselors and clinicians pp. 259–279. San Francisco CA: John Wiley Sons Inc. Bhatla N. Achyut P . Khan N. Walia S. A. T. 2015. Promoting equality and safety in schools. Bangkok Tailand: Plan International. Blanchet-Cohen N. UNICEF 2009. Children agency and violence: In and beyond the United Nations study on violence against children. Florence Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Blankenship K. M. Friedman S. R. Dworkin S. Mantell J. E. 2006. Structural interventions: Concepts challenges and opportunities for research. Journal of Urban Health 83 59–72. Borsari B. Carey K.B. 2003. Descriptive and injunctive norms in college drinking: a meta-analytic integration. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 64 331–341.

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