Grammar Book SP3H

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Grammar Book :

Karina Stapleton SPH3 Grammar Book

Table of contents:

Table of contents Imperfect Preterite Por vs. Para Stressed Possessive A djectives and Pronouns DOP y IOP Ud y Uds Mandatos Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Subjunctive with verbs of emotion Subjunctive with verbs doubt, disbelief, and denial Subjunctive with conjunctions

Imperfect:

Imperfect *Another past tense Uses: Ongoing action (was/were) Repeated Action (used to) No definite beginning or end time/date/age/feelings/descriptions Interrupted activity ( cuando ) - ar -er -ir cantar tener salir cantaba tenía salía cantabas tenías salías cantaba tenía salía cantábamos teníamos salíamos cantabais teníais salíais cantaban tenían salían * -er and –ir verb endings include – ía . Irregulars ser ir ver era iba ve ía eras ibas ve í as era iba ve í a éramos ibamos ve íamos erais ibais ve í ais eran iban ve ían

Preterite:

Preterite -ar -er/-ir - é - í - aste - iste - ó - ió - amos - imos - aron - ieron *All of these preterite forms require an accent , EXCEPT the ustedes / ellos / ellas forms. Cucaracha Verbs Andar Anduve - Estar Estuve - Poder Pud - Poner Pus- Quiere Quis - Saber Sup- Tener Tuv - Venir Vin- -e - imos - iste - isteis -o - ieron Take off the “I” Conducir Conduj - Producir Produj - Traducir Traduj - Decir Dij - Traer Traj - -car yo qué -gar yo gué - zar yo cé Verbs ending in –car, -gar, - zar These have a change in the y o form. Spock Verbs Dar (give) / Ver (see) di / vi dimos / vimos diste / viste dio / vio dieron / vieron Ir (go) / Ser (be) fui fuimos fuiste fue fueron Hacer (do /make) hice hicimos hiciste hizo hicieron Y Spelling Change Snake: Stem Changers: Dormir Dormí Dormimos Dormiste Durmió Dumieron Snakey : Y Changers: Leer Leí Leimos Leiste Leyó Leyeron

Por vs. Para:

Por vs. Para Por Para -motion or general location -duration of an action -object of a search -means by which something is done -exchange or substitution -unit of measure -destination -deadline/specific time in future -purpose or goal + infinitive (in order to) -Purpose + (noun/verb) (for, used for) -recipient of something (for) -comparisons/opinions (for, considering) -employment (for) Para usually comes before an infinitive Both mean for, but not interchangeable Por Para Vs.

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IOP DOP

Ud . y Uds. Mandatos:

Ud . y U ds . Mandatos DOP + IOP + “se” can attach to an affirmative DOP + IOP + “se” must go before the neg. command Affirmative Negative Tú - drop the ‘s’ Los Irregulares = di, haz , ve pon , sal se, ten, ven Ud ./ Uds . – put in “ yo ” form + change to opposite vowel Los Irregulares = TVDISHES Tú – put in “ yo ” form + change to opposite vowel, + add an ‘s’ Los Irregulares = TVDISHES Ud ./ Uds . – same as above TVDISHES: Tener , Venir , Dar, Ir , Ser , Haber, Estar , and Saber

Present Subjunctive:

1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative. 2. Then drop the -o ending. 3. Finally , add the following endings: - ar verbs: -e, - es , -e, - emos , - éis , en - er and - ir verbs: -a, -as, -a, - amos , - áis , -an ONLY DIFFERENCE FROM UD> AND UDS> COMMANDS IS TU FORM! Present Subjunctive

Verbs of Will and Influence :

V erbs of Will and Influence Verbs of Will and Influence Sugerir (e- ie ) -to suggest Aconsejar –to advise Importar – to be important Insistir (en) -to insist on Mandar - to order Prohibir – to prohibit Recomendar (e- ie ) – to recommend Rogar (o- ue ) -to beg, to plead

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion:

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion When the main clause of a sentence expresses an emotion or feeling, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. Verbs of expressions and emotion alegrarse (de) to be happy tener miedo (de) to be afraid (of) esperar to hope; to wish es extraño it’s strange gustar to like es un lástima it ’ s a shame molestar to bother es ridículo it’s ridiculous sentir ( e:ie ) to be sorry es terrible it ’ s terrible soprender to surprise es triste it’s sad temer to be worried ojalá ( que ) I hope (that) Ex : 1. Nos alegramos de que te gusten las flores . 2 . Siento que tú no vengas mañana . 3. Temo que Ana no pueda ir mañana con nosotros . 4. Le soprende que Juan sea tan joven ->Use the infinitive after an expression of emotion when there is no change of subject Ex: 1. Temo llegar tarde . 2. Temo que mi novio llegue tarde . ->The expression ojalá /( que ) is always followed by the subjunctive. The use of que is optional Ex: Ojalá ( que ) recojan la basura muy pronto.

Subjunctive with verbs doubt, disbelief, and denial :

Subjunctive with verbs doubt, disbelief, and denial The subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause when there is a change of subject and the main clause implies negation or uncertainty. Ex: 1. Dudo que el gobierno resuelva el problema . Expressions of doubt, disbelief, or denial dudar to doubt no es seguro it’s not certain negar ( e:ie ) to deny no es verdad it ’ s not true no creer not to believe es impossible it’s impossible no estar seguro /a (de) no to be sure (of) es improbable it’s improbable no es cierto it’s not true (no) es posible it’s (not) possible (no) es probable it’s (not) probable ->Use the infinitive when there is no change in subject. Ex. Dudo llegar temprano . -> Quizás and tal vez imply an uncertain possibility and are usually followed by subjunctive. Expre ssions of Certainty no dudar not to doubt estar seguro /a (de) to be sure (of) no cabe duda de there is no doubt es cierto it’s true no hay duda de there is no doubt es seguro it’s certain no negar ( e:ie ) not to deny es verdad it’s true es obvio it’s obvious -> Use the indicative in a subordinate clause when the main clause expresses certainty. Ex: 1. No negamos que hay demasiados carros en las carreteras . 2. Es cierto que los tigres están en peligro de extinción .

Subjunctive with Conjunctions:

Subjunctive with Conjunctions Conjunctions are words/phrases that connect clauses. Certain ones introduce adverbial clauses, which describe how, why , when, and where action takes place; they ALWAYS require subjunctive. Conjunctions that require the subjuncti ve a menos que unless en case (de) que in case (that) antes(de) que before para que so that con tal (de) que provided that sin que without Ex: 1. Voy al supermercado para que tengas algo de comer. 2. Voy a tomar esa slase con tal de que tú la tomes también . ->Use the infinitive after the prepositions antes, de, para , and sin when there is no change in subject. Ex: 1. Te llamamos el viernes antes de salir de la casa. 2. Tus padres trabajan muchísimo para vivir bien . Conjunctions used with subjunctive or indicative cuando when hasta que until después (de) que after tan pronto como as soon as en cuanto as soon as -> (for these above) Use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause if the main clause expresses a future action or command. Ex: Después de que ustedes tome n sus refrescos , reciclen las botellas . -> ) Use the indicative if the verb in the main clause expresses an action that habitually happens or that happened in the past . Ex: 1.Siempre vamos de excursión tan pronto como llega Juan. 2.Salimos tan pronto como llegó Juan.