BETWEEN THE WARS

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THE ROARING 20’S: 

THE ROARING 20’S

POST-WAR PERIOD 1918-1921: 

POST-WAR PERIOD 1918-1921 WILSON'S LOSS OF POPULARITY ECONOMIC RECESSION LABOR DISPUTES 2400 STRIKES RED SCARE ? PALMER RAIDS ? BLACK SCARE / INCREASED RACIAL TENSIONS

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROARING 20’S: 

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROARING 20’S POLITICAL CONSERVATISM ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM BOOM AND BUST MIXED FOREIGN POLICY CULTURAL CHANGE

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM: 

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM DESIRE TO “TURN BACK THE CLOCK” AND RETURN TO THE “GOOD OLD DAYS” DISILLUSIONED BY WWI REACTION AGAINST PROGRESSIVISM AND LIBERALISM RED SCARE BLACK SCARE

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM: 

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM ELECTION OF 1920 REP. - WARREN G. HARDING “RETURN TO NORMALCY” DEM. – JAMES COX SOC. – EUGENE V. DEBS

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM: 

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM HARDING ADMINISTRATION (1921-1923) DEATH CALVIN COOLIDGE ? SCANDALS OHIO GANG ? TEAPOT DOME ? ALBERT FALL ?

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM: 

POLITICAL CONSERVATISM COURT MARTIAL OF BILLY MITCHELL ? INSUBORDINATION KU KLUX KLAN ? SACCO AND VANZETTI ?

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM: 

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM RETURN TO TRADITIONAL REPUBLICAN POLICIES LAISSEZ FAIRE TRICKLE DOWN ECONOMICS HIGHER TARIFFS RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM: 

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM ANDREW MELLON ? “SPARE THE RICH” (TRICKLE DOWN ECONOMICS) HIGH TARIFFS LOW TAXES LOWER GOV’T SPENDING AID TO SOLDIERS AND FARMERS

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM: 

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM ELECTION OF 1924 REP. – CALVIN COOLIDGE “KEEP COOL WITH COOLIDGE” DEM. – JOHN W. DAVIS PROG. – ROBERT M. LAFOLLETTE

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM: 

ECONOMIC CONSERVATISM ELECTION OF 1928 REP. – HERBERT HOOVER “A CHICKEN IN EVERY POT AND TWO CARS IN EVERY GARAGE” DEM. – ALFRED SMITH

BOOM AND BUST: 

BOOM AND BUST UNPARALLELED ECONOMIC GROWTH FOLLOWED BY STOCK MARKET CRASH AND GREAT DEPRESSION

BOOM AND BUST: 

BOOM AND BUST INSTALLMENT BUYING ? RADIO / ADVERTISING FLORIDA LAND BOOM BIG BULL MARKET ?

BOOM AND BUST: 

BOOM AND BUST STOCK MARKET CRASH THURSDAY OCTOBER 24, 1929 $11 BILLION LOST J. P. MORGAN TUESDAY OCTOBER 29, 1929 ? $14 BILLION LOST CAUSES OVERSPECULATION EXCESSIVE MARGIN PURCHASES ? LOSS OF CONFIDENCE

MIXED FOREIGN POLICY: 

MIXED FOREIGN POLICY ISOLATION LEAGUE OF NATIONS ECONOMIC NATIONALISM IMMIGRATION POLICY EMERGENCY QUOTA ACT – 1921 NATIONAL ORIGINS ACT – 1924 RESTRICTED IMMIGRATION FROM SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE

MIXED FOREIGN POLICY: 

MIXED FOREIGN POLICY COOPERATION WAR DEBTS AND REPARATIONS ? DAWES PLAN – 1924 YOUNG PLAN – 1929 HOOVER MORATORIUM – 1931 LAUSANNE PACT – 1932 WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE – 1921 ? KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT – 1928 ?

CULTURAL CHANGE: 

CULTURAL CHANGE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIBERALISM REBELLION AGAINST TRADITION NEW FORMS OF CULTURAL EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY

CULTURAL CHANGE: 

CULTURAL CHANGE PROHIBITION – “THE NOBLE EXPERIMENT” VOLSTEAD ACT ? BOOTLEGGER ? SPEAKEASY ? AL CAPONE ? ST. VALENTINE’S DAY MASSACRE 2/14/1929 ?

Slide22: 

HEROES, VILLIANS, AND SCANDALS

CULTURAL CHANGE: 

CULTURAL CHANGE LEOPOLD AND LOEB – MAY 21, 1924 ? CLARENCE DARROW ? JOHN T. SCOPES-1925 MONKEY TRIAL ? WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE ?

CULTURAL CHANGE: 

CULTURAL CHANGE CHARLES LINDBERGH ? HENRY FORD ASSEMBLY LINE MODEL T ? RADIO KDKA ? MUSIC ? DANCE ? FLAPPERS ?

CULTURAL CHANGE: 

CULTURAL CHANGE HARLEM RENAISSANCE ? MARCUS GARVEY ? UNIA ? LITERATURE LOST GENERATION ? “ALL GODS DEAD, ALL WARS FOUGHT, ALL FAITHS IN MAN SHAKEN”

CULTURAL CHANGE: 

CULTURAL CHANGE MOTION PICTURES RUDOLPH VALENTINO ? THE JAZZ SINGER ? SPORTS BABE RUTH ? JACK DEMPSEY ? BOBBY JONES ?

THE GREAT DEPRESSION: 

THE GREAT DEPRESSION

CHARACTERISTICS: 

CHARACTERISTICS AGRICULTURAL PLIGHT DUST BOWL ? OKIES ? GRAPES OF WRATH ? STOCK MARKET CRASH BANK RUNS DOWNWARD SPIRAL BUSINESS FAILURES UNEMPLOYMENT LESS SALES $50,000,000,000 lost in 2 weeks 86,000 business failed in 3 years 9,000,000 savings accounts wiped out in 3 years 12,000,000 unemployed

CAUSES: 

CAUSES WORLDWIDE ECONOMIC DISORDER HIGH TARIFFS FORDNEY-MCCUMBER TARIFF - 1922 HAWLEY-SMOOT TARIFF - 1930 EXCESSIVE BORROWING INSTALLMENT BUYING MARGIN PURCHASES OVERPRODUCTION UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH

INITIAL STEPS TAKEN BY HOOVER: 

INITIAL STEPS TAKEN BY HOOVER RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM “PROSPERITY IS JUST AROUND THE CORNER” “TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE” RFC – 1932 ? HOME LOAN BANK ACT – 1932 ? VOLUNTARY COOPERATION OF BUSINESS URGED CITIES AND STATES TO INCREASE SPENDING CUT INCOME TAXES $45 MILLION TO HELP FARMERS FEED LIVESTOCK BONUS ARMY MARCH ?

ELECTION OF 1932: 

ELECTION OF 1932 REP. – HERBERT HOOVER DEM. – FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT NEW DEAL FOR THE FORGOTTEN MAN ISSUE - DEPRESSION

Slide36: 

FDR 22,821,277 57.4% HOOVER 15,761,254 39.7%

NEW DEAL AIMS: 

NEW DEAL AIMS RELIEF ? REFORM ? RECOVERY ? FIRESIDE CHATS ? PUMP PRIMING ? JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES ? BRAIN TRUST ?

100 DAYS: 

100 DAYS BANK HOLIDAY ? CCC ? PWA ? WPA ? FERA ? 21ST AMENDMENT ? FDIC ? NRA (NIRA) ?

ALPHABET SOUP: 

ALPHABET SOUP AAA ? SCDAA ? FCA ? RA ? SEC ? WAGNER ACT ? NLRB ? CIO ? JOHN L. LEWIS ? HOLC ? FHA ? SSA ? TVA ? NYA ? REA ? GOLD RESERVE ACT ? RECIPROCAL TRADE AGREEMENTS ? MOST FAVORED NATION ? CORDELL HULL ? GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY ? VETERAN’S BONUS BILL ?

Slide42: 

NYA

PIED PIPERS OF PROSPERITY: 

PIED PIPERS OF PROSPERITY HUEY P. LONG SHARE OUR WEALTH ? EVERY MAN A KING ?

PIED PIPERS OF PROSPERITY: 

PIED PIPERS OF PROSPERITY FATHER CHARLES E. COUGHLIN RADIO PRIEST OF DETROIT NATIONAL UNION FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE PLAN ? ? ANTI ?

PIED PIPERS OF PROSPERITY: 

PIED PIPERS OF PROSPERITY DR. FRANCIS E. TOWNSEND REVOLVING PENSION PLAN ?

ELECTION OF 1936: 

ELECTION OF 1936 DEM. – FDR REP. – ALF LANDON UNION PARTY HUEY P. LONG DR. CARL WEISS ? WILLIAM LEMKE ISSUES BALANCING THE BUDGET NEW DEAL

Slide47: 

FDR 27,752,648 60.8% LANDON 16,681,862 36.5% LEMKE 892,378 2.0%

FDR’S 2ND TERM: 

FDR’S 2ND TERM SUPREME COURT COURT PACKING ? FINANCING THE NEW DEAL DEFICIT SPENDING INFLATION RAISE TAXES TO “SOAK THE RICH” INCOME – INHERITANCE – CORPORATE

ELECTION OF 1940: 

ELECTION OF 1940 DEM. – FDR REP. – WENDELL WILKIE ISSUES 3RD TERM WWII

Slide52: 

WHAT BASIC ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL POLICIES WERE PURSUED BY THE CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICAN ADMINISTRATIONS OF THE 1920’S?

Slide53: 

IN WHAT WAYS WERE THE TWENTIES A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL REACTION AGAINST THE PROGRESSIVE IDEALISM THAT HELD SWAY BEFORE AND DURING WORLD WAR I?

Slide54: 

HOW DID NEW TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC INNOVATIONS HELP BRING ABOUT SOCIAL CHANGES IN THE 20’S?

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