Syllogisms

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Logical deductive and inductive syllogisms

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Syllogisms:

Syllogisms Critical Thinking | Julia Westlake

Deductive - Inclusive:

Deductive - Inclusive All As are Bs. All Bs are C’s. All As are Cs. Fill in the blanks with the variables. All __________ are ________. All __________ are ________. All __________ are ________. Pair up the variables A = presidents B = public servants C = paid through taxes presidents presidents p ublic servants p ublic servants p aid through taxes p aid through taxes

Syllogism II:

Syllogism II Pattern: All As are Bs. No Bs are Cs . No As are Cs . Example: All call center workers at ABC Corp are shift workers. No shift workers are paid salary . No call center employees at ABC Corp are paid salary.

Syllogism III:

Syllogism III Pattern: If A, then B. If B, then C. Therefore, if A, then C. Example: If I go to the store then I take the car. If I take the car then my husband can’t. Therefore, if I go to the store then my husband can’t leave the house with the car.

Syllogism IV:

Syllogism IV Pattern: Either A or B. Not B. Therefore A. Either ______ or _____. Not ________. Therefore ________. A = I enroll in college B = I stay in my current job until I retire Either I enroll in college or I stay in my current job until I retire. I am not staying in my current job until I retire. Therefore, I am headed back to college.

Inductive – General to Specific:

Inductive – General to Specific Most X’s are Y’s This is an X. Therefore, this is a Y. Play mad- libs and set up the format. Most _______ are _________. This is an ____________. Therefore, this is a _____________. Define the variables. X = Blondes Y = have blue eyes blondes blonde b lue eyed b lue eyed person

Syllogisms: Arguments from Analogy:

Syllogisms: Arguments from Analogy X and Y have properties p, q, r, etc. X has feature F. Therefore, Y has feature F. Examples: Tommy and Betty are both college students who attend University of Somewhere, they are about the same age, and work for the same company, and have the same boss. Tommy is a scheduler. Therefore, Betty is also a scheduler.

Syllogisms: Arguments from Analogy:

Syllogisms: Arguments from Analogy Terms of analogy Things being compared Tommy and Betty Similarities Properties the terms are said to have are both college students who attend WEST, they are about the same age, and work for the same company, and have the same boss Feature Another property, NOT mentioned in the comparison term that we predict the terms of analogy will both possess Tommy is a scheduler. Therefore, Betty is also a scheduler. Comparison term Who or what is being compared to the target Tommy is a scheduler. Target Term Term mentioned in the conclusion Therefore, Betty is also a scheduler.

Syllogisms: Arguments from Analogy:

Syllogisms: Arguments from Analogy Things to consider: Number of related similarities between X and Y The number of related differences between X and Y The diversity of the related similarities The number of entities that the comparison term X includes

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