History Church


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HISTORY OF THE CHURCH Jesus Christ founded the Church, on the solid rock of Peter.

The foundation of the Church : 

The foundation of the Church In the Gospel we see the stages by which Christ founded “His Church”. He began preaching the Kingdom of God, He selected twelve Apostles, One of the Apostles, Peter, was designated His vicar and Christ gave him the supreme power over the whole Church. Jesus performed many miracles to show that “with Him” the Kingdom of God had arrived. With His death on the cross He obtained salvation for all men, and the last stone of this magnificent building was the coming of the Holy Spirit, sent by Him from Heaven on the day of Pentecost. GRECO, El Saint Peter 1610-13 Oil on canvas, 209 x 106 cm Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial

The mystery of the Church : 

The mystery of the Church The Church is human and divine, visible and invisible, at the same time. The Church is both hierarchical and charismatic, but the charismas are subordinated to the hierarchy, because the hierarchy governs the Church in the name of Christ under the guide of the Holy Spirit, from whom charismas spring. MASACCIO St Peter Healing the Sick with his Shadow 1426-27 Fresco, 230 x 162 cm Cappella Brancacci, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

Slide 4: 

149. What is the origin and the fulfillment of the Church The Church finds her origin and fulfillment in the eternal plan of God. She was prepared for in the Old Covenant with the election of Israel, the sign of the future gathering of all the nations. Founded by the words and actions of Jesus Christ, fulfilled by his redeeming death and Resurrection, the Church has been manifested as the mystery of salvation by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. She will be perfected in the glory of heaven as the assembly of all the redeemed of the earth.

Slide 5: 

The Church depends entirely from Christ, as the light of the moon depends on the light of the sun. St. Augustine said that the Church is Christ among us : Christ’s hands keep on healing us (through the sacraments of the Church), His lips keep on teaching us (the doctrine that the Church teaches). The Church continues Christ’s mission; that is the reason why Christ founded the Church. When we profess our faith in the Creed, we say, “I believe in One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.” The Church is a mother who takes care of us with the sacraments and Christ’s doctrine, and leads us to Heaven.

History: divine providence & human freedom. : 

History: divine providence & human freedom. GOALS:Sanctity Apostolate PROPERTIES OR MARKS: One Holy Catholic Apostolic

St. Peter's Church (Antioch) : 

St. Peter's Church (Antioch) Antioch played a large role in the early spread of the Gospel of Christ. After Stephen was stoned, many disciples fled to Antioch in order to escape persecution and then preached the Gospel to Jews there (Acts 8:1; 11:19). Other disciples soon arrived in Antioch and preached the Gospel to Greeks (11:20-21). Later the church in Antioch sent Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey (Acts 13). Paul began and ended his second missionary journey in Antioch, accompanied by Silas (Acts 15:36-41; 18:22). He started his third missionary journey from the city as well (Acts 18:22-23).

...Antioch : 

...Antioch Many were baptized. where for the first time the disciples were called Christians (Acts 11:26) From there, to the gentiles (Eph 3:5-12)

Slide 10: 

The House of the Virgin Mary. It is believed that the Virgin Mary accompanied St John, the Evangelist to Ephesus around 37 AD and it is here that she died. The house is at the top of a high hill, hidden amongst the trees. Been restored and is now a chapel.

Slide 11: 

The Altar of the Crucifixion of St. Peter is a mosaic reproduction of a picture by Guido Reni (1575-1642) showing St. Peter crucified upside down. An ancient tradition claims that St. Peter suffered martyrdom precisely where the altar stands. In fact part of the basilica is actually built on the site of Nero's Circus. “Upon this rock…”

Floorplan : 


Graffito of the Red Wall - "Peter is Within" : 

Graffito of the Red Wall - "Peter is Within"

Persecutions : 

Persecutions First form the Jews; then from the Romans. Martyrs. But “the powers of death shall not prevail against it” (Mt 16,18) Edict of Milan 313. Persecutions stopped, but 10% Christians. Ecumenical Councils Emperor Constantine


FATHERS OF THE CHURCH From first centuries Doctrinal orthodoxy Holiness of life Witness of the tradition of the Church

Middle Ages : 

Middle Ages The Eastern Schism: Photius (IX), Michael Cerularius (XI). Theology. Universities. St Thomas Aquinas, St Bernard, St Albert the Great, St Bonaventure. Religious Orders: Benedictins, Franciscans, Dominicans. Crusades.

St. Benedict : 

St. Benedict St. Benedict was born in Umbria 480. Educated at Rome, he began the eremitic life at Subiaco where he gathered disciples, and then departed for Monte Cassino (Benedictine Rule: a life of liturgical prayer, study, manual labor, and living together as a community). Adopted throughout Europe He is one of the patrons of Europe and is the patron of poison suffers.

Western Schism : 

Western Schism Avignon (1306-1376) St Catherine of Siena. 1378: Schism: 40 years. “Conciliarism”.

Modern Age : 

Modern Age Evangelization of America (1492) & Asia. Protestantism (Luther: 1483-1546) and Council of Trent (1545-1563). Great Saints: St Teresa Avila, St John of the Cross, St Ignatius, St Francis Xavier, St Philip Neri,...

Slide 20: 

1054: First Great Schism. Issues: primacy of the Pope (ecclesial); Filioque (theological). XVI Century: Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther 1517. Man is Justified by faith alone. Only the Scriptures.

Slide 21: 

Causes of the Reformation –corruption and abuses in the Church. But no doctrinal errors. Sparks of spiritual awakening - in late Middle Ages – Pope faced with – the rise of Nationalism – princes – would only allow reforms of the Church in their territories – for a price. Popes were forced to negotiate concordats (treaties) with the nations. These governments made vast revenues from manipulating the Church. Simony – the selling of spiritual goods and Church offices. Many secular rulers became bishops or abbots – in order – to control the Church and receive its revenues. The popes tried to get it back by setting a high papal tax on these ecclesiastical offices. Pluralism – princes purchasing to hold 2 or more Church offices – never care for the people but hired others to do it. When princes needed to raise money – they would collect it from fees at pilgrimage sites and sell indulgences e.g. “as soon as a coin in the coffer rings, another soul to heaven springs.”

Separation : 

Separation Protestants Reject the Papacy, the Magisterium & Sacred Tradition The battle cry of the Reformation is over the doctrine of Luther’s Justification by faith alone. Pillars of the Protestantism Sola Fide ( faith alone is sufficient for Salvation) Sola Scriptura ( the Bible is the sole rule of faith)

Recent Times : 

Recent Times First Vatican Council (1869-1870). Infallibility of the Pope. Rationalism and Agnosticism. Evangelization of Africa. Kiev, Ukraine

Recent Times : 

Recent Times Social Doctrine of the Church. Leo XIII: Rerum Novarum (1891). Liberalism. Marxism. Modernism & St Pius X. Pascendi (1907). Fatima 1917. XX Century Wars.

Recent Times : 

Recent Times Pius XII Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) Bl. John XXIII- Paul VI. Post-Council Liturgical issues. Aggiornamento. A New Evangelization.

To love Christ is to love the Church : 

To love Christ is to love the Church St. Ciprian said that “nobody can have God as Father if he does not have the Church as mother”. GRECO, El Christ on the Cross with the Two Maries and St John c. 1588 Oil on canvas, 120 x 80 cm National Gallery, Athens

Our duties towards the Church : 

Our duties towards the Church Our duties towards our mother the Church are: to believe what she teaches; to do what she commands; to love her truly, feeling happy and honoured to belong to her. We have to pray for the Church: for the Pope, for the Bishops, Priests (year of the priests starting 16th June), for all Christians. Furthermore, we have to assist the Church in its necessities.