a1 The Discovery

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SOC 901V California’s Gold Rush: 49ers/Miners:

2 SOC 901V California’s Gold Rush: 49ers/Miners Please read all “Course Instructions” prior to beginning this Independent Study Course. Slides will advance automatically in all presentations. Instructor: Jeromy Winter

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3 This first presentation is titled The Discovery , and it is about 22 minutes in length. It is recommended that you preview each course assignment prior to viewing the corresponding presentation. Instructions

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4 Instructions The final slide in each presentation provides course instructions. Course Content/Assignment Questions: Please email the instructor, Jeromy Winter, at [email protected] or call at (559) 896-1012.

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5 A Message from Bob Kirchner Teachers: My good friend, Bob Kirchner and Dr. Don Dorough developed several Travel Courses together, including SOC 901 (Travel), California’s Gold Rush: 49ers/Miners. SOC 901 (Travel), requires teachers/students to actually visit selected sites in the gold country. Many of the taped interviews used in that Travel Course are also used in this course, SOC 901V; therefore, you will hear both Dr. Dorough and Bob Kirchner mentioned as instructors. They are no longer instructors of this course.

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6 SOC 901V and SOC 901 (Travel) are both designed to help teachers better understand the impact of California’s Gold Rush. (Teachers may not enroll in both courses.) If you have course content questions please feel free to email me, Jeromy Winter, at [email protected] or call at (559) 896-1012. I hope you enjoy and benefit from this course. Comments and suggestions for improving SOC 901V are sincerely appreciated.

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7 THE DISCOVERY (22 minutes) Presenter: Earl Schmidt, Historian, and Past-President, E Clampus Vitus.

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8 Historian The Golden Chain Council of The Mother Lode

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9 Vineyard House - 1900 Vineyard House Today

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10 Vineyard House & Winery

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11 Early California and the Discovery of Gold at Coloma.

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12 American River

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13 Is that James Marshall? Original Mill

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14 Original Mill

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15 Mill Replica

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16 James Marshall

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17

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18 Placerita Canyon Gold was discovered here in 1842.

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19 Placerita Canyon

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20 Indians knew of gold in the area.

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21 Miwok acorn storage granaries. Miwok Indians

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22

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23 The Discovery of Gold in Coloma…

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24 James Marshall was hired by John Sutter. Marshall Sutter

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25 Sutter’s Fort

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26 Sacramento 1850

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27 Crude Grain Grinding Stone at Sutter’s Fort

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28 American River

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29 American River

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30 Marshal Gold Discovery State Historic Park 2007

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31 Sutter’s Mill Replica

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32

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33

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34 Reunion of the Mormon Battalion, which marched 2,000 miles.

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35 The men planned to work to earn enough money to go back to their families in Utah. Salt Lake City

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36 Sacramento Coloma

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37 American River and Coloma From Air

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38 These men and others worked back in the woods…

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39 Statue at Coloma dedicated to James Marshall.

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40

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41 Logs and sawed boards were rolled up/down here.

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42 Water exits the “tailrace” here. Water flows under and through the front “race” of the mill. Flowing water turns water wheel.

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43 Marshall’s Cabin at Coloma

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44 pit saw

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45 Modern-day sawing contest using a pit saw.

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46 Pit saws hang from ceiling of Custom House in Monterey.

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47 Yerba Buena (San Francisco)

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48 Yerba Buena (San Francisco) The City “Built on Gold.”

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49 Sacramento 1849

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50 Sacramento 1850

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51 The saw mill was to provide lumber for construction of a flour mill near Sacramento.

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52

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53 Tailrace Headrace Waterwheel Saw

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54 Peter Wimmer Mr. Wimmer also worked for Sutter on the mill. Mrs. Wimmer cooked for the workers.

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55 Elizabeth Wimmer Mrs. Wimmer cooked for the men at Coloma. Wimmer Cabin at Coloma

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56

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57 “They didn’t have anything to work with…” Mormon Derrick

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58 Coloma grew rapidly.

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59 Americans weren’t miners.

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60 Gold recovery methods were something the miners invented on their own. Rocker Long Tom

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61 These young Mormons were men who had come off farms.

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62 …a willingness to work and a great devotion to their religious beliefs.

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63 They were prepared to do a full day’s work for a day’s pay. They had dug the race, and it was not deep enough. Marshall brought up a kind of metal that looked like gold.

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64 They ran some very simple tests on it. And, this piece of shiny metal flattened out.

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65 January 24, 1848 Coloma, California

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66 In 1898, surviving witnesses to the discovery of gold at Coloma were invited to a 50th anniversary celebration in San Francisco. Henry Bigler Azariah Smith William Johnson James Brown No Sound for 5 Frames

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67 Two young Mormons, Henry Bigler and Azariah Smith, working for Sutter on the mill at Coloma, kept diaries. They made entries describing the gold discovery. No Sound

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68 "This day some kind of mettle was found in the tail race that looks like goald first discovered by James Martial the Boss of the Mill." —Henry Bigler's diary (and spelling), January 24, 1848. Henry Bigler No Sound

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69 Azariah Smith By the end of April, Smith had "picked up" about $500 worth of gold. That was enough. "I was homesick," he recalled. "I wanted to see my mother, and I did not care whether there was gold in the locality or not.“ (Azariah Smith was 18 year old.) "This week Monday the 24th, Mr. Marshall found pieces of (as we suppose) gold," he noted in his journal, "and has gone to the fort for the purpose of finding out.“ Azariah Smith No Sound

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70 Marshall discovered it. When they had free time, they went out to see if they could find gold. This was the discovery of gold at Coloma.

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71 These men were concerned with getting the job done and building the mill. And, they did it!

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72 The sawmill at Coloma provided lumber for Sutter to build his flour mill at Natoma.

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73 There was no place to sell gold.

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74 The closest mint was in Philadelphia.

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75 Gold was a medium of exchange weighed on a scale. $12 - $16 oz. delivered at the mint

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76 The first mints in California were private mints.

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77 Senator Broderick 1820-1859 Dueling was still considered a proper way to settle feuds in San Francisco in the 1850s. On Friday, Sept. 16th, ’59, the Hon. David C. Broderick, United States Senator from California, died from the effect of a wound received in a duel, fought with David S. Terry, formerly Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Calif.

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78 A $20 gold piece was lucky to have $14, $15, or $16 worth of gold in it.

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79 Gold was a medium of exchange that had less value than most foods. 1894 $10 gold coin

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80 Teachers: This concludes THE DISCOVERY presentation. Complete the assignments that relate to this presentation. Your next assignment is to view THE GOLDEN CHAIN HIGHWAY presentation.

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