Grammar Book

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book Jaime Ponder

Table Of contents:

Table Of contents Nacionaldades Stem Changers Para Adjectives IOP DOP Stem Changers Pronoun Placement Isimo Verbs like gustar Reflexive verbs Tu commands


Nacionalidades Argentina- Argentino Bolivia- Boliviano Brasil- Brasileno Chile- Chileno Colombia- Colombiano Costa Rica- Costarricense Cuba — cubano Ecuador — ecuatoriano El Salvador — salvadoreño Guatemala — guatemalteco Honduras — hondureño Italia (Italy) — italiano México, Méjico — mexicano Panamá — panameño Paraguay — paraguayo Perú — peruano Portugal — portugués Uruguay — uruguayo Venezuela — venezolano

Stem changers:

Stem changers O- ue Almorzar almuerzo Contar cuentar Costar cuestar Devolver devuelver Dormir duermir Encontrar encuentra Poder Puerder Recoradar recuerdar Volver vuelver

Pronoun placement:

Pronoun placement Voy a comerlo. Estoy comiéndolo. ¡ Cómelo! Lo voy a comer.


Adjectives “s” is added to adjectives ending with “z” Ex: grandes “ es ” is added to adjectives ending in consonant Ex: azules An ending “z” nouns is replaced with “ ces ” Ex: lapiz --- lapices


Iop Rules: Indirect pronouns replace the noun in the sentence to avoid repetition. They tell us to/for whom or what. They use the same words are DOP’s except in the usted (le) and ustedes (les)


D op Rules: Tells us what is being verbed . They use the same words as IOP’s except in the usted (lo, la) and ustedes (los, las ) form. Singular: Yo : me (me) Tu : te (you-informal) Usted : lo, la (you-formal, him, her)

Ser vs estar:

Ser vs estar Ser : uses Estar : uses Health Location Physical states Emotional state Weather expressions Ongoing actions Nationalites Occupation Characteristics of people Possession What something is made of Time and date Where or when an event

Verbs like gustar:

Verbs like gustar Rules: Still singular with infinitives Mi + noun = my (noun)

Stem changers:

Stem changers Ser Estar Conjugation Soy- somos Eres - sais Es - son Conjugation To be




Reflexive Me Nos Te Os Se Se Conjugate (o to ue) (e to ie)

Modal Verbs :

Modal Verbs The 2 nd verb is not conjugated, but rather left in infinitive form Never say “no puedo nado ” Ir + a + infinitive = going to do something Poder + infinitive= are able to do something Querer + infinitive= want to do something Deber + infinitive= should do something Tener que + infinitive= to have to do something Soler + infinitive= to be accustomed to…

Past particles :

Past particles Drop- ar ending and add ado Drop- er or ir ending and add ido Examples: La puerta esta cerrada The door is closed El resturante esta abierto The restaurant is open

El preterito:

El preterito A definite time in the past Has a beginning and/or ending Las expressiones para el uso (trigger words) Ayer, Anoche , El ano pasado , La semana pasada , Ante ayer