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ZOONOTIC DISEASES Tartu 10.3.-11.3.2004


DEFINITION diseases from animals to humans or visa versa directly from animals by inhalation, contact or bites indirectly by contaminated soil or other material by vectors (insects)


IMPORTANCE in industrialised countries by food or drinks (water, milk etc) as occupational diseases rare in animal contact in environments where animals are


IN EU Council Directive 92/117/EEC: yearly report on the zoonoses situation in the country the following is based on the Finnish zoonoses report in 1995 - 1999


MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS (BOVINE TBC) TBC free status of bovine herds eradicated in 1960´s for the most part latest detection 1982 no TBC isolated from deer, swine or zoo animals in 2002 in man M. bovis found 0-1 times a year


BRUCELLOSIS brucellosis free status of bovine herds latest case in cattle in 1960 brucellosis free status of ovine (sheep) and caprine (coat) herds never recorded in Finland porcine brucellosis has been recorded in Finland 0-2 human cases a year; mostly from food eaten abroad


SALMONELLA in 2002 found in two broiler breeding flocks and in one turkey breeding flock no cases in egg production in 9 herds of cattle none in swine in man 500 - 1 300 domestic cases yearly; 2500 - 3500 abroad no occupational cases known


TRICHINELLA trichinellosis has been detected in a few domestic swine every year during the last 20 years in 2002 two cases in over 2 million samples none found in horses two in farmed wild boars in wild animals 55 positive of 296 samples no human cases in 2002


RABIES since 1991 Finland is free of rabies no positive cases in 2002 vaccination programme: to immunise wild animals coming from Russia 80 000 immunisation baits spread by plane in south-eastern border area of 250 km long and 20-30 km wide no human cases


LISTEROSIS listed as a zoonotic disease even if it is mostly a microbe of the soil for animals Listeria rarely causes diseases importance in food-chain: it can grow in temperatures found in refrigerators commonly found in soil and animal faeces commonly by food, very rarely by direct contact to sick animal


YERSINOSIS the third most common cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections (after Campylobacter and Salmonella) 2002 695 cases reported by food or drinks according to the serologic studies occupational exposure is evident, but clinical disease? Occupational nature no shown


ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS found in reindeer close to the Russian border and from imported horses in 2002 in 21 reindeer out of 65 358 samples tested none found in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, pigs, horses or moose in 2002 no human cases in 2002


TOXOPLASMOSIS found in cats, wild animals etc causes abortions and malformations in humans 34 human cases reported in 2002 it has been estimated that each year about 50 children are borne with toxoplasmosis no reported cases as an occupational disease in Finland

EHEC 1: 

EHEC 1 definition disputable verocytotoxic E. coli (serotype O157) new cattle is the main reservoir animals are not effected in 1997 1,3 % of all herds were positive

EHEC 2: 

EHEC 2 EHEC dies in heating but can survive freezing and stands well acid environment (German type sausages) in humans the toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) causes the symptoms hemorrhagic diarrhoea mortality 5 % in children under 5 y

EHEC 3: 

EHEC 3 in the beginning 1990 only a few sporadic cases from abroad in 1996-1997 the disease spread to Finland in 2002 at slaughter 9 positive samples out of 195 17 human cases

EHEC 4: 

EHEC 4 not known occupational diseases but cases of children living in farms have been reported children living in farms are in risk


ERYSIPELOTHRIX common microbe in soil causes typical disease in swine about 5000 cases in swine yearly in abattoirs and in farms can be an occupational diseases: causes skin infection in damaged skin septic form rare

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