Material management DRA

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

Material Management An introduction to materials management. Material requirement Purchase management, Inventory control, Material handling: Vendor selection Make or buy decision Negotiation: Cost-reduction techniques – Standardization codification and variety reduction: waste management: Value analysis: Determination and description of material quality acceptance sampling plan. Dr.J.BelsenDavid Associate Professor

PowerPoint Presentation:

It is defined as an organizational concept , which has the authority and responsibility of all activities, concerned with the flow of materials in the organization. Objectives and importance Efficient use of the working capital. Lowering inventory investment and increasing the inventory turnover . Respond ing to the market changes related to any product. Ensuring the cooperation of all departments. Providing best services to the king of the market ( i.e. customer) .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Principles of material handling Least handling is the best handling. Lengths and number of move to be minimized . Unit loads Minimize the distance . The design of the container (e.g. shippers are used for storing finished bulk & for raw materials as per the property of materials they are stored in plastic containers (light weight containers)) Re-handling and back tracking of the materials should be avoided . The materials handling service should not interfere with the production flow .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Classes of materials Raw materials : These are materials that are used in the product which is in an unprocessed condition. Purchased Parts : These are the items used in the assembly of the product . In-progress materials : They are called ‘ work in progress ’ inventories. These goods require further processing . Finished materials : These are fully manufactured goods , inspected and ready for delivery to the customers. Supplies : These are consumable goods used in the process of manufacturing.

Functions of material management:

Functions of material management 5

PowerPoint Presentation:

Materials-Quality & Quantity Four factors affecting the purchase of raw materials are 1) Quality : The suitably of an item to accomplish the intended work . The raw materials should satisfy the following requirements. Efficiency of the material to perform its functions Cost and the shelf –life of the material For equipments: Quality of interchangeability and ease of making assembly Power consumption and power requirement

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. Quality function of the purchasing department: To buy right quantity . The supplier is also interested in quantity as he is usually prepared to give discount when large quantities are purchased. Quantity standards are decided on the following parameters; Maximum inventory Minimum inventory Standard order Reorder point 3. Price of material : Negotiated with firms based on certain procedures. 4. Delivery Date : Finalized based on the needs of the organization.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Value Analysis Definition : It is a systematic study of every element for it’s cost in a part, material or service to make certain that it performs it’s function at the lowest possible cost . Benefits of value analysis : Decrease in existing cost of the product or service. Unnecessary expenditure is identified and eliminated . Product value improves for new materials and processes. More profits .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Value ratio Mathematical representation of the value can be done as Function Value = Value can be improved by the following ways: Reducing the cost Improving the function Achieving both the above When the function is increased with a disproportionately low increase in cost . Reasons for unnecessary costs: Lack of information Lack of ideas Changed circumstances Wrong beliefs, habits and attitudes Total cost

PowerPoint Presentation:

Value Analysis Technique The value of an item can be improved by applying the following questions: what must I do? What else does the item do? What does it cost? What else will the job do? What will be alternative costs?

Purchasing :

Purchasing Centralized: The purchasing procedure of materials for different department is done together from one purchasing department. This is seen in small organizations. Advantages Efficient system Bargaining capabilities increased Good raw material obtained at lower price Decentralized: Different department purchase their requirement separately. This is basically seen in large organizations. Advantages Flexible purchasing system Procurement is faster

PowerPoint Presentation:

Functions of purchasing department The functions of purchasing department are as follows: Ordering section places orders with the vendors. Service section follows the progress of the purchase orders, its shipment by the vendor and its final receipt by the company. Record section maintains all records of quotations, costs, purchase etc. Thus purchasing involves control, co-ordination and communication. Depending on the size of the organization it can be either centralized or de centralized or both types can be conceived in policy plan

PowerPoint Presentation:

Vendor development The supplier or the person who sells the required materials or services for the production is known as a vendor . The purchase of raw materials/service from a specific vendor is known as the vendor development . There are four stages of vendor development : Stage Name Development 1 st Survey stage Identifying the potential sources of suppliers. Seeking information. Provisional vendors list. 2 nd Enquiry stage Analysis of information in standard enquiry format. Accreditation, FDA approval, ISO certification. Personal visits. 3 rd Negotiations and selection stage Quality control specifications, clarification, credit, quantity discounts. 4 th Experience and evaluation stage Performance appraisal, Quality, delivery time.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Survey stage – source of information on potential vendors: Survey involves collecting information on different suppliers of the desired materials. The following sources are considered for information Trade directories : These give information regarding dealers address, regional offices, names, types and range of products. e.g. Yellowpages.eindiabusiness.com Trade journals : These contains advertisement of the materials related to specific industries, namely chemicals, plastics, steel etc. e.g. Pharmatimes

PowerPoint Presentation:

Telephone directories The contain classified advertisements arranged alphabetically, item-wise. e.g. abrasives, air-conditioners, castings, diamonds and so on. It is an easy and fast means of collecting the sources. Supplier’s catalogue Manufacturers periodically catalogues and pamphlets giving details of the products they manufacture. (contain technical informations, prices etc.) Salesmen Trained personnel who continuously visit customers for possible business and orders. (collect information directly and clarify doubts) Other ways are like interchanging of information with other companies, tracing of public tenders and advertisements in the press.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Inquiry stage- selection of potential suppliers After getting the information of the suppliers, detailed analysis of the supplier is being carried out. A comparison is being made between the different suppliers on basis of the following points:- Technological competition, service competition, price competition, Time based competition, (delivery time) .

PowerPoint Presentation:

A first hand assessment of the capabilities of a supplier with respect to the following. Internal facilities of the vendor Adequate facilities are essential for the manufacture and quality control of items. Additional facilities are to be explored for the supply of items in time . (modern equipment, quality of inputs, maintenance, size and capacity, layout, housekeeping and cleanliness are inspected) Financial adequacy, stability and reputation of the vendor The financial status of the company and relationship with bankers should be explored. (items produced and supplied without financial difficulty) For this purpose previous years balance sheets are helpful.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Reputation of the vendor: The suppliers reputation in the market in regard to prices and promises of delivery dates to be considered. Location of the vendor’s factory: It should be near the buyers factory (if it is located at a distant town then vendors representative should be available in the locality) After sales service: In case of equipments after sales service is essential. (availability of maintenance engineers in the locality is advantageous)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Industrial relationship: Industrial conflicts, frequent strikes, layoffs etc., seriously affects the supplies. So the industrial climate, work culture, employer-employee relationship should be considered. Other factors to be considered are; Is the supplier a direct manufacturer or only an agent? Is the buyer looking for one or more supplies? Whether the supplier is small or big? Full enquiry into all factors should be made in order to arrive at a decision regarding the selection of source

PowerPoint Presentation:

Negotiation and selection stage-finalization of vendors The vendors who clear the enquiry stage are selected and negotiations are being carried out with them. The various aspects such as credit , quantity discount , quality specifications are being discussed . Finally a list of approved vendors is drawn (purchase orders are placed with approved vendors)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Experience and evaluation stage-consolidation of vendors The buyer evaluates and appraises the performance of the vendor . The objective is to improve the performance of the vendors. The evaluation is done on two counts namely quality (judged by rejection of lot size) and delivery (delay in delivery) . Few ways of evaluating a vendor are: Categorical method Weighted point method Cost ratio method

PowerPoint Presentation:

a) Categorical method The buyer sets up some category on which the evaluation of the vendor is done. (performance report; periodic intervals- once in three months) Each supplier is evaluated and a number score is calculated . Specimen of supplier’s evaluation form is given below. Grading Factors Always 9 8 7 Usually 6 5 4 Seldom 3 2 1 Never 0 Supplies are as per quantity selected Deliveries are on time Rigorous follow up is not necessary Willing to accommodate when production schedules are suddenly changed

PowerPoint Presentation:

Each supplier is evaluated and a number score is calculated and then it is converted into word ratings . The conversion of scores is as follows ; On the basis of evaluation, a meeting should be held with the suppliers and a clear appraisal is given. Advantages: The buyer would keep a watch on the performance Provides opportunity to discuss performance with vendors. Less expensive method. 80-100 Excellent 70-80 Very good 60-70 Good 50-60 Average 40-50 Very poor

PowerPoint Presentation:

b) Weighted point method This type of evaluation involves a point rating based on quality of goods received, promptness of delivery made and quality of service by the vendor. For e.g. Quality – 50 points Delivery- 30 points Price – 20 points so total is 100 points. The rating can be obtained by following equation . Quantity rating = (no. of lots accepted/ no. lots received) ×rating points Delivery rating = (no of lots delivered on time/ no of lots delivered) × rating points Price rating =(least offer received/ supplier’s offer) × rating points Can be applied for any factor considered to be important by the buyer.

PowerPoint Presentation:

c) Cost-ratio method It is an intricate (detailed) system of determining the actual costs incurred in purchasing , follow up , transportation, packing , receiving etc. Based on these costs the unit cost incurred by the buyer is calculated . For e.g. Quality cost ratio=2,000:2,00,000 i.e., 1%/ Similarly when the cost of delivery is Rs 1,000 then Delivery cost ratio=1,000:2,00,000 i.e.,0.5% Similarly all types of costs can be calculated. These ratios must be maintained as minimum as possible. Advantage : Buyer can exercise better judgment over retaining the vendors. Disadvantage : Non-disqualifiable factors namely integrity, behavior, attitude towards progressiveness should also be given importance.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Buying techniques Purchasing of material, machinery and services is done by purchasing department . It also concentrates on the right source and economic procurement (while procuring the materials the company pays the price). Price is defined as the amount of money at which a thing is valued or the value that a seller sets on his goods in market. Price is one of the greatest variable s in the purchasing of material. Very often price is qualified by terms , best price , lowest price , economic price etc. Inorder to determine the right price , the buyer should be conversant with business trends , trade cycles , supply and demand , price advances and decline.

PowerPoint Presentation:

a) Quotations Quotation is an inquiry to know whether the vendor can supply the desired material and at what price. Quotations are invited on a prescribed format from the selected sources for the required items . The quotations also include the terms and conditions ( taxes, freight, cartage etc.,) Quotations are not the purchase order . A minimum of three quotations each in duplicate is required from different suppliers (valid for atleast 1 month from the date of opening). The highly used quotation techniques are; Spot quotations Floating a limited enquire

PowerPoint Presentation:

Spot quotations: The buyer can go to the market and collect a minimum of three quotation from three different suppliers and takes a spot decision . This is basically used for the purchase of office stationary and computer peripherals (small items). This type of purchase is not suitable for purchase of pharmaceutical materials . ii. Floating a limited enquire: This method is used when value of purchase is small . In this technique the reliable vendors are called upon and asked to provide the quotations (sends letters to few reliable vendors). After getting quotations, they are opened and a comparative statement is made.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Comparative statement is analyzed by following points. The comparative statement helps in studying and comparing different quotations at a glance. Advantage: Quick decision can be taken (as to whom to place order for purchase of material). Tenders It is a written letter or a published document that is aimed at finding the price for procuring certain materials or for getting a particular job done within desired period under specific conditions. Price of the material Material specificity (quality) Places of delivery Delivery period Taxes Terms of payment Validity of tender Guarantee period etc.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Tenders are invited from recognized firms. A few types of tenders are : Single tender Open tender Closed tender or limited tender i . Single tender: It is invited from one reliable supplier under certain conditions. This kind of tender is floated only when the items are required urgently . ii. Open tender: Also known as ‘ press tender ’. This is used when the value of item to be purchased is very high. It is used to locate more suppliers .

PowerPoint Presentation:

In this tender procured, a small amount of the deposit money is taken from the supplier so that they do not withdraw from the submitted rates . iii. Closed tender or limited tender (Negotiations): Negotiations may be defined as an art of arriving at a common understanding through bargaining on essentials of a contract such as delivery, specifications, prices and terms. It is done to arrive at the mutual understanding between the supplier/vendor and the buyer. Negotiations are considered essential in following condition Prices are related to large volumes or to a large value . Terms and conditions are required for large volumes. Contract is desired for a longer period . Variations in quantity to be purchase are possible. When supplies or services can be obtained from only one source . When no acceptable quotations are received from the other vendors.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Process of negotiations: Negotiations takes place between two individuals or two sets of individuals. Communication is important ingredient in the art of negotiation. Through communication ideas the purchase department persuades and convince the vendors to agree to their view point so that an agreement can be reached. It is a kind of win-win situation . Both the parties try to benefit to the maxima through the negotiation . It is not a kind of bargaining /horse trading/haggling but a mutual understanding between the two parties.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Discounts: Discounts are defines as cash concessions offered by the vendor in the payment of price, on goods purchased in order to enhance the volume of business opportunities. Reasons for offering discounts: When there is a bulk purchase . When the bills are cleared immediately . And also to maintain the good rappo with the buyer Types of discounts : Volume contracts. Deals Discounts Consignment terms

PowerPoint Presentation:

Volume contracts: Volume contract discount is defines as a method of offering discount proportionate to the quantity of goods or volume of material ordered. This kind of contract is employed to cover total purchase of ampoules, bottles and other accessories. Because of large order, the seller is able to obtain economies in production, packaging, billing, selling etc. Advantages: Contract price is protected from an increase/decrease of price. Buyer directly pays to the supplier

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cash discount: Cash discount is given on the basis of the time of the payment done by the purchaser. The normal credit period is 90 days. Cumulative discount: Cumulative discounts may be defines as a method of offering the discount on the basis of actual purchases and appropriate to the quantity range in a year. Time of payment in days Cash discount (%) 90 Nil 60 1 30 2 Immediate 3

PowerPoint Presentation:

Purchasing cycle and procedure The purchasing department of the company is responsible for the purchase of all the raw materials as well as the requirements. The following steps are followed in the purchasing cycle. Recognition of need and receipt of requisition: Having identified the needs for an item, an official indent is send in duplicate to purchase department . The requisition includes the following information:- Name Quality and quantity specifications Date by which material is required Place at which material is to be delivered Purchase requisition is usually routed through store department .

PowerPoint Presentation:

2) Selection of potential sources of supply It is more economical to purchase directly from the manufacturing firm itself. The department usually maintains an approved list of suppliers (for frequently purchased items-few preferred suppliers). The vendor can be assessed by paying a visit and by enquiries . Personal knowledge and experience with the suppliers should be combined and viewed in the light of information supplied by the prospective suppliers . It is always better to record the observations in the performance register. 3) Making request for quotation Quotations are invited on a prescribed form for the required items (at least 3 quotation from different suppliers). Quotation includes the terms and conditions namely taxes, freight, cartage etc (not a purchase order) .

PowerPoint Presentation:

4) Receipt and analysis of quotations After receiving quotations from different suppliers, these are compiled and a comparative statement of prices is prepared along with other items. The comparative statement helps in studying and comparing different quotations at a glance . The following aspects should be given adequate consideration material specifications and quality price of the material taxes terms of payment place of delivery delivery period guarantee period validity of tender

PowerPoint Presentation:

5) Selection of right source of supply Though quoted price is an important consideration for finalizing the purchases , several other aspects should also be considered . Will the vendor maintain quality ? Will vendor supply material in time ? Does the vendor possess adequate facilities to handle the contract ? How far the vendors plant is situated ? 6) Issuing the purchase order After selecting the right supplier , the purchase order is prepared and dispatched to the supplier . The purchase order constitutes a legal document (acts as an authority to dispatch items by vendor). When vendor accepts the purchase order, it acts as a contract for delivery of items.

PowerPoint Presentation:

7) Follow-up of the order After placing the order , the purchase service-section contacts the vendor in order to ascertain the progress of the order , meeting delivery date, mode of shipment etc., Specially designed postcards containing following information is frequently used for routine follow-up, Purchase order number Pre-decided delivery date Promised shipment date etc. All verbal communications are confirmed by writing . A good follow-up will expedite the prompt delivery of items. 8) Receipt of materials, reports and analysis Company receives materials along with the analytical reports . After verifying (reports and purchase order) material is warehoused.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Records are maintained on the suppliers who are consistently late . Pharmaceutical companies have their own quality control department for verification of quality standards. Once material is approved, label to this effect is attached or if material is rejected it has to be returned for replacement. 9) Checking and approving of vendor’s invoice for payment Copies of bills are received along with materials. The bill should be checked to ensure that correct material is shipped. The price is checked as per purchase order and verified. After scrutinizing the bill is passed and payment is made through cheque to vendor.

PowerPoint Presentation:

10) Closing of completed order Before closing the executed orders, the file copy of the purchase order must be checked against delivery reports and vendors invoice once again. A note is made and then purchase order file is closed . 11) Maintenance of record and file The final step of the purchasing procedure is the maintaining of the order-records . Purchasing cycle flow chart has been given in the following slide.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Store Management Supplies constitute the most important assets in any business enterprise. Warehousing the materials, tools and components is the largest operation. Location of Stores : Store should be located adjacent to the manufacturing area. It depends up on nature and value of items to be stored and frequency with which items are received and issued.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Objectives : Minimum wastage of space Maximum ease of operation Minimum handling cost Minimum other operational cost Facilities of Store Inspection center Quarantine room Washing room Centralized weighing department Adequate space

PowerPoint Presentation:

Functions of stores General function Maintenance of Stock (materials and tools) Maintenance of hygiene, sanitation, and pest control Maintenance of material handling equipment Specific functions Receiving & recording of raw materials Quarantine storage: Sampling & approval by QC Positioning & Storage Issuing & recording of materials Receiving & Dispatching of finished goods Distribution Optional functions Dispensing, Maintenance of weights & measures

PowerPoint Presentation:

Material handling system Definition Material handling uses the right method to provide the right amount of the right material at the right place, at the right time, in the right sequence, in the right position, in the right condition, and at the right cost. Material handling system involves handling, storing and controlling material. The raw materials, in-process materials and finished goods are moved from one place to another in the plant. Adds value through time and place utility

PowerPoint Presentation:

Impacts space requirement, profits, quality, safety, and productivity On an average, 20% of production cost is spent on material handling system Twenty Principles of Material Handling Planning principle . Plan all material handling and storage activities to obtain maximum overall operating efficiency. System principle . Integrate as many handling activities as is practical into a coordinated system of operations, covering vendor, receiving, storage, production, inspection, packaging, warehousing, transportation. etc.

PowerPoint Presentation:

3.Material flow principle . Provide an operation sequence and equipment layout optimizing material flow. 4. Simplification principle. Simplify handling by reducing, eliminating, or combining unnecessary movement and/or equipment. Gravity principle. Utilize gravity to move material wherever practical. 6.Space utilization principle. Make optimum utilization of space . 7.Unit size principle. Increase the quantity, size, or weight of unit loads or flow rate. 8.Mechanization principle. Mechanize handling operations.

PowerPoint Presentation:

9.Automation principle. Provide automation to include production, handling, and storage functions. 10.Equipment selection principle. In selecting handling equipment, consider all aspects of the material being handled. 11.Standardization principle. Standardize handling methods as well as types and sizes of handling equipment. 12.Adaptability principle. Use methods and equipment that can best perform a variety of tasks and applications where special purpose equipment is not justified.

PowerPoint Presentation:

13.Dead weight principle. Reduce ratio of dead weight of mobile handling equipment to load carried. 14.Utilization principle. Plan for optimum utilization of handling equipment and manpower. 15.Maintenance principle. Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs of all handling equipment. 16.Obsolescence principle. Replace obsolete handling methods and equipment when more efficient methods or equipment will improve operations.

PowerPoint Presentation:

17.Control principle. Use material handling activities to improve control of production inventory and order handling. 18. Capacity principle. Use handling equipment to help achieve desired production capacity. 19.Performance principle. Determine effectiveness of handling performance in terms of expense per unit handled. 20. Safety principle. Provide suitable methods and equipment for safe handling.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Handling of materials must be performed Safely Efficiently At low cost In a timely manner Accurately (the right materials in the right quantities to the right locations) And without damage to the materials Risks associated with improper handling Increase in cost of raw material and finished products Delay in production schedule and long production cycle

PowerPoint Presentation:

Waste of machine time and personnel time Increase in in-process inventories Damage or loss of material and employee safety liabilities Employee frustration and reduced morale Customers dissatisfaction Selecting Material Handling System Systematic Approach 1. Define the problem

PowerPoint Presentation:

2.Analyze the problem Observe activities Obtain layouts, flow patterns, schedules, etc. Obtain information on existing material handling equipment Analyze situation by Twenty Principles of Material Handling, and/or forms Can activities be combined, simplified, eliminated??? 3.Identify possible solutions Organize meeting with : material handlers machine operators supervisors support engineers

PowerPoint Presentation:

4.Evaluate alternatives Meet again to rate alternatives Material Handling Equipment Five categories: Industrial trucks Automated guided vehicles Monorails and other rail guided vehicles Conveyors Cranes and hoists

Salvaging and Disposal of Scrap and Surplus:

Salvaging and Disposal of Scrap and Surplus The words ‘Scrap’ and ‘Surplus’ symbolize waste and to that extent these account for the loss of profits. Scrap is commonly used for waste of all kinds.

PowerPoint Presentation:

These occur for the following reasons : Mistakes in procurement Wrong planning decisions Wasteful processes in production Inevitable waste during the adjustment of the equipment Overall absence of efficiency

PowerPoint Presentation:

Disposal of scrap, surplus, recyclable, obsolete materials is one of the most important area of materials management, but often overlooked or considered minor. Popular due to increased public awareness of environment, government legislation, better recognition of opportunities it offers in return. e.g. paper files and forms are recyclable item that can be sold to recycle company.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The following measure are adopted and monitored for handling scrap: Controlling of surplus and scrap salvaging or converting the waste for advantageous use. Disposal of the surplus and scrap to the best advantage.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The production department primarily controls the first function by proper design, while purchase department handles the second and third functions. Waste materials in pharmaceutical industry: Empty drums, packing materials, card boards, aluminium caps, bottles etc. these are non-recoverable rejects . Spoiled materials during production. In a few instances, these may be recoverable. Worn-out parts of equipments (examples are punches and dies), old equipment (due to expiry of life) and obsolete equipment (due to technology change).

PowerPoint Presentation:

Salvage : It is defined as the processing of materials (items) for advantageous use or disposal of company property, which is no longer economically useful in its present position. Salvage operation : Waste materials are properly collected and stored at one place continuously, so that these can form a separate batch in production. Recoverable materials are stored in a scientific way as other items stored.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Materials are stored in terms of quality or size or specifications. Waste is invested for suitability to recover or avoid them. Salvaging operation are possible under the following conditions: Evidences from laboratory tests and assays that the drug products meet all applicable standards of identity, strength, quality and purity. Evidence from inspection of premises that the drug products and their associated packing were not subjected to improper storage condition, as a result of the disaster or accident.

Disposal :

Disposal Disposal of scrap, waste and surplus materials can be effected by several way : Surplus material should be returned to the original supplier. Alternatively a customer who needs them should be explored. As a social obligation, some material are defected or broken before selling them as scrap.

Disposal :

Disposal Materials may be sold by inviting quotations from potential buyers or through various contracts such as fixed price contract, varying price contract, specific bids and negotiations. It is worth considering that scrap like any other material represents money and to that extent it has a value.

Unit lode, Pelletization and Containerization:

Unit lode, Pelletization and Containerization Unit load is a set of items (raw material, semi finished parts, finished product) to be move together, like: A set of cartons on a pallet A set of products in a container In a unit load, parts are In something (In a carton) On something (On a pallet) Grouped by something (wrapped, strapped)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Multiple items handled simultaneously Required number of trips is reduced Loading/unloading times are reduced Product damage is decreased (a) Wooden pallet, (b) pallet box, (c) tote box Reasons for using unit loads in material handling

PowerPoint Presentation:

Pallets : Style and Size based on: Shipping and receiving restrictions Size and weight of items on the pallet Space restrictions Equipment used to move the pallet Cost, supply, and maintenance Aisle widths, door sizes, stacking heights

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of Pallets : Materials used : Softwood Hardwood Paper Plastic Steel Aluminium

PowerPoint Presentation:

Containerization : Different types of containers are used according to the type of material. e.g Boxes, cartons, cases, sacks, bales, pallets, drums, barrels, crates, cable drums, machinery, and processed timber Tank containers for bulk liquids and dangerous goods.

Training and devlopment:

Training and devlopment Training and development may be defined as an attempt to improve current or future performance of employees through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his/her skills and knowledge.

Training and devlopment:

Training and devlopment Training and development program - Steps Explain the trainee what is the job, how is the job done and why is it done (relevance). Show how the job should be done (demonstration). Allow the trainee to do the job (practice). Follow up by explaining what was done correctly and what was done incorrectly. Correction always should be made as privately as possible (feedback).

Training and devlopment:

Training and devlopment Training and development program – Methods : On-the job training Off-the job training

Training and devlopment:

Training and devlopment On-the job training : Majority of industrial training are on-the job training, because it is related to the productivity. On-the job training refers to methods that are applied at the workplace, while the employee is actually working.

Training and devlopment:

Training and devlopment Off-the job training : This method is commonly used for the training of employees. Off-the job training refers to methods that are applied away from workplace.

Job analysis:

Job analysis Job analysis is defined as a process of collecting and studying information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.

Job analysis:

Job analysis Process of job analysis : Defining uses of job analysis Information collecting Information processing Job description Job specification

JOB ANALYSIS:

JOB ANALYSIS Uses of job analysis : Personnel planning Training and development Work scheduling Performance appraisal Job evaluation

Job analysis:

Job analysis Job Description : is defined as a combination of statement containing the work to be performed and the essential working conditions of a particular job. Job specification : may be defined as a statement of human qualities and other desirable characteristics required for discharging the assigned job.

JOB ANALYSIS:

JOB ANALYSIS Job Analysis Job description Job specifications Job title Education Job place Experience Job summary Training Machines, tools and equipment Judgment Materials and forms used Initiative Working condition Responsibilities Hazards Physical effort

JOB DESIGN:

JOB DESIGN Job design involves conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit to achieve objectives. Job design involves three steps. Specifications of individual tasks. Specification of the methods of performing each tasks. Conversion of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals.

JOB DESIGN:

JOB DESIGN Mechanisms of job design : Understanding the nature of job is important, because it determines the skill requirement in performing a job. Skill variation, responsibility and growth Low High Enlargement and enrichment

PowerPoint Presentation:

Job enlargement It involves performing of a variety of jobs or operations at the same time. It is mainly intended to enlarge the job horizontally. It avoids monotony, as a result of high degree of specialization, but the basic nature of job remains same. Therefore, it has limited role in motivating employees. There is a need for up-gradation of authority and responsibility. Job enrichment It acts as an additional motivating factors to other models described earlier in job design. This factor attracted more attention, both in academic circles as well as in practice. Therefore, it requires a detailed study.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Job enrichment is concerned with designing of job in terms of the following : Work content provides greater variety. Levels of knowledge and skills are higher. More autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing and controlling is given to workers for their own performance. Work experience becomes meaningful. Advantages of material management It eliminates unproductive handling of the materials like back-tracking, rehandling etc. It reduces idle machine capacity and thus ensures better turnover on investment.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The quality of the materials is also maintained through minimum human touches, elimination of breakages, etc. Every inch of the factory space is properly utilized. It reduces considerably the idle time of the workers. The issue of materials is also facilitated. It helps in maintaining effective production planning and control. Reduced operating costs and timely production. Greater job satisfaction on the part of both the workers and the employer.

References :

References CVS Subrahmanyam; Pharmaceutical Product and Management, Published by- Vallabh Prakashan, Page no :- 260 – 282 S.C. Saksena; Business Administration Management, Published by- Sahitya Bhawan, Page no :- 262 – 263, chapter 20.

authorStream Live Help