Grammar Book 2

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book Por : Ivan McIlwean

Subjunctive in adjective clauses:

Subjunctive in adjective clauses Adjective clauses are relative clauses: a relative pronoun (usually que ) + some description that modifies a noun. Some adjective clauses require the indicative, while others need the subjunctive. What's the difference? Reality and existence of the noun described by the adjective clause.

Tu Commands:

Tu Commands The affirmative informal ( tú ) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud . Form Note that the negative informal commands use the tú form of the present subjunctive . Cuenta tus beneficios . Count your blessings . No cuentes tus beneficios . Don't count your blessings.

Nosotros Commands:

Nosotros Commands Nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included, and are used to express the idea "let's + verb." To form these commands, use the nosotros form of the present subjunctive. Comamos allí . Let's eat there. Contemos el dinero . Let's count the money . To form the negative command, place the word no before the same verb form (present subjunctive). No comamos allí . Let's not eat there. No contemos el dinero . Let's not count the money.

Past Participles used as Adjectives:

Past Participles used as Adjectives When Past Participles are used in Spanish in the Perfect tenses , they do not change form. That is, they don't change according to gender or number. This is because the Past Participle is functioning as the second verb in a verb phrase. But we can use Past Participles separately from verbs. We can use them as adjectives . For example, in English, we can say a book is "illustrated", a window is "broken". We use a Past Participle to describe the "written" section of a test or the "sworn" testimony of a witness.

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle. You have already learned in a previous lesson that the past participle is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding either -ado or - ido . Remember, some past participles are irregular. The following examples all use the past participle for the verb "comer." ( yo ) He comido . I have eaten. ( tú ) Has comido . You have eaten. ( él ) Ha comido . He has eaten. ( nosotros ) Hemos comido . We have eaten. ( vosotros ) Habéis comido . You-all have eaten. ( ellos ) Han comido . They have eaten.

Past Perfect:

Past Perfect In Spanish, the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb " haber " with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows: había habías había habíamos habíais habían When you studied the past participle, you practiced using it as an adjective. When used as an adjective, the past participle changes to agree with the noun it modifies. However, when used in the perfect tenses, the past participle never changes.

Future tense:

Future tense The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen . The future tense is also used to express wonder or probability in the present state. Regular verbs in the future tense are conjugated by adding the following endings to the infinitive form of the verb: -é, - ás , -á, - emos , - éis , - án . hablar é hablar ás hablar á hablar emos hablar éis hablar án

Conditional Tense:

Conditional Tense Frequently, the conditional is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably. when "would" is used in the sense of a repeated action in the past, the imperfect is used. To conjugate regular - ar , - er and - ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infintive : ía ías ía íamos íais ían

Past Subjunctive:

Past Subjunctive the past subjunctive forms are based on the preterite (simple past); they're generally used when the syntax requires a subjunctive but in a clause that denotes one of the following: a point of time in the past ; a "hypothetical point in time" (see below); in the subjunctive, the tense/aspect system is simplified as we'll see below. The past subjunctive also has one or two special uses that can't quite be explained as "combination of subjunctive plus past ". lo termino antes de que llegue I'll finish it before she arrives