History 1483 - Lecture 7 - New Republic

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This slideshow comes from Chapter 7 US History Survey to 1877 - Class 1483.

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Affects of Revolution:Women, African Americans, Native Americans : 

Affects of Revolution:Women, African Americans, Native Americans

Women’s Revolutionary Gains : 

Women’s Revolutionary Gains Some hoped for equality Marriage Choose partner, marry out of birth order Partnership of friends Easier divorce (men could remarry) Education Increase in literacy to teach children Work More responsibility in family business More control over household finances

African-American Gains : 

African-American Gains 5,000 fought for Patriots Integrated in North; segregated in South About 10,000 slaves freed by British Philosophical dilemma Wide-scale Northern manumission Slavery contradicted principles of liberty Most manumission occurred gradually Some northern free black property owners could vote Possibly 50,000 gained freedom by 1790s

Freeing Southern Slaves1780s & 1790s : 

Freeing Southern Slaves1780s & 1790s Manumission easier until about 1800 1782 Va. law allowed for manumission Former master had to financially support Could not be over 50 years old Reversed in 1806 Many owners realized hypocrisy Cotton gin (1792) changed economics

Example: Robert Carter, III : 

Example: Robert Carter, III Virginia colonial elite 16 plantations, 70,000 acres, 500+ slaves Wealthier than Washington or Jefferson After 1791, freed 15 slaves/year

Jefferson & Slavery : 

Jefferson & Slavery “But as it is, we have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.” TJ, 1820 Sally Hemings controversy Defended Howell brothers, 1770 As Sec. Of State, sought payment for “property” taken by British Believed in inherent inferiority of blacks Society could not exist white and black Blacks should be removed to Africa Wolf by the Ears, John Chester Miller

Indians After Revolution : 

Indians After Revolution Continental Congress assumed authority during Revolution After Rev, harsh treatment for tribes who supported British “Renegotiated” treaties Lost land; moved west New US Congress set Federal Indian Policy States and individuals had no authority Indian affairs under War Dept. Similar to foreign affairs Treaty-making policy continued

A New Federal Government:Confederation 1781-1787(loose association of sovereign states) : 

A New Federal Government:Confederation 1781-1787(loose association of sovereign states)

“That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . .” : 

“That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . .”

Slide 10: 

What is republican government? Who were “The People”? Property owners! 60-85% of white males owned property acted in best self-interest Free of allegiance to employer or landlord Close to nature, fresh air, clear thinking Became “American Dream” Native Americans with property voted in Mass. New Jersey - anyone with £50 voted until 1807

State Governments Came First : 

State Governments Came First Written state constitutions: Limited gov powers Created balance of powers States’ bills of rights protected individuals Va. Declaration of Rights, George Mason

Slide 12: 

New United States 1783

Confederation Congress 1781-87 : 

Confederation Congress 1781-87 Tiny federal authority Unicameral government State legislature elected representative each year Rep voted as directed No president or executive branch No Senate / House of Representatives No federal court system or Supreme Court Each state had one vote Responsible for foreign affairs & national defense

Military Issues : 

Military Issues States objected to standing army Washington left about 600 active troops British troops still in north and west Refused to leave until war debt paid to citizens Shay’s Rebellion 1786-87 More military control needed Congress asked states to supply troops

Confederation Achievements : 

Confederation Achievements Land Ordinance of 1785 Land not claimed by states went to federal gov Surveyed for sale Most sold to speculators Wealthy & investment groups Established Rectangular Land Survey System

Example of Rectangular Land Survey System: Oklahoma base line & meridian(Rose State T11N, R2W) : 

Example of Rectangular Land Survey System: Oklahoma base line & meridian(Rose State T11N, R2W) Base Line Indian Meridian

Rectangular Land Survey System : 

Rectangular Land Survey System < ------------ Six miles -----------> <----------- 640 acres ----------> Township – 36 sq. miles Section – 1 sq. mile

Boone Township(6 sq. mi.)(Midwest City & Tinker) : 

Boone Township(6 sq. mi.)(Midwest City & Tinker) Rose State

Northwest Territory, 1787(First lands added to new United States) : 

Northwest Territory, 1787(First lands added to new United States)

Northwest Ordinance 1787 : 

Northwest Ordinance 1787 Established Northwest Territory Congress appointed first territorial government Set population requirements for statehood Set pattern for all other lands acquired New states come in “on an equal footing as original states in all respects whatsoever” Try to deal fairly with Indians Protect from white intruders Prohibited slavery in Northwest

Northwest Territory& Southwest Territory(France 1800Spain 1763) : 

Northwest Territory& Southwest Territory(France 1800Spain 1763) 13 Original States

Southwest Ordinance 1790 : 

Southwest Ordinance 1790 South of Ohio River Settled by Southerners Brought plantation farming, Southern culture with Made slavery legal in new southern areas Soon became Ky, Tn, Al, Miss

A New Kind of Government: From Confederation to Constitution 1787-1788 “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” : 

A New Kind of Government: From Confederation to Constitution 1787-1788 “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

Constitutional Convention : 

Constitutional Convention Philadelphia, 1787 (not publicized) George Washington, president No political parties yet Biggest problem: Small vs. large states 4-month internal debate

Result:new governmental organization : 

Result:new governmental organization Three branches Executive (president and cabinet) Judicial (US Supreme Court and federal court system) Legislative (Senate & House of Rep ) All states equal in Senate, House based on population Evened influence between small and large states Biggest problem: What to do with slaves?? Count as citizens? (population) Don’t count at all?? (taxation)

Checks and Balances : 

Checks and Balances President elected by electoral college, based on majority vote in each state Judiciary ruled on constitutionality of laws passed by congress President could veto laws congress made Constitutional amendments required 3/4 of congress and 2/3 of states to approve

Slide 28: 

US Constitution “Three-Fifths Clause”: Slaves counted as 3/5 person for headcount, as property for taxation Gave Southern states greater influence in gov “ Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.”

Public Debate on Constitution : 

Public Debate on Constitution Published nationwide and discussed Emerging philosophies of two-party system resulted partly from discussions Political differences: Strict interpretation of Constitution Narrow interpretation of Constitution

Bill of Rights : 

Bill of Rights First 10 amendments to Constitution Ensured individual liberties Strong central government with special safeguards of personal rights Also widely published and discussed