process validation of ointment, creams

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Why need of process validation for ointment/cream?:

Why need of process validation for ointment/cream? Product bio burden high? Multiple component? More adequate preservative system? All have Newtonian flow behavior? History : Zinc oxide rash cream that was heated to a relatively high temperature solely by the action of rotating mixing plate.

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Ointment Cream Soft, semisolid preparation intended for application to skin and mucus membrane. Appearance : Opaque Type : Oleaginous bases Absorption bases Emulsion bases Water soluble bases Viscous emulsion of semisolid consistency intended for application to skin and mucus membrane. Appearance : Translucent Type : oil-in-water(o/w) water-in-oil(w/o)

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● Processes must be validated in pharmaceutical manufacturing are: Cleaning Sanitization Fumigation Depyrogenation Sterilization Sterile filling Fermentation Bulk production Purification Filling, capping, sealing Lyophilization

Process Validation:

Process Validation Documented evidence , a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product that meets its predetermined specification and quality characteristics.

Process Validation Program:

Process Validation Program

cont.. :


Process validation:



Why? Results in fewer product recalls and troubleshooting assignments in manufacturing operations. Results in more technically and economically sound products and their manufacturing processes.


When? Development stage Product design Product characterization Formula selection Process design Product optimization Process characterization Process qualification Process demonstration Process validation program Product / process certification


Who? Formulation development Process development Pharmaceutical manufacturing Engineering QA QC API operations Regulatory affairs IT operations


ORDER OF PRIORITY Sterile products and their processes( High Risk ) 1) LVP 2) SVP 3) Ophthalmic , other sterile products and medical devices B . Non- sterile products and their processes( Low Risk ) 1 ) Low dose/high potency tablets and capsules/ TDDS 2) Drugs with stability problems 3 ) Other tablets and capsules 4 ) Oral liquids , topical ointment and cream 5) Diagnostic aids

Validation Protocol:

Validation Protocol Written plan describing the process to be validated, including production equipment. How validation will be conducted Objective test parameter Product characteristics Predetermine specification Factors affecting acceptable result

Protocol for validation of manufacturing process:

Protocol for validation of manufacturing process Purpose and prerequisite for validation Presentation of the whole process and sub processes including flow diagram and critical step analysis Validation protocol approvals Installation and Operation qualification Qualification reports including method, procedure, release criteria, calibration of test equipment, test data, summary of result.


Cont.. Product qualification test data from prevalidation batches Test data from formal validation batches Sampling plan - where, when and how the samples to be taken Evaluation of test data, conclusion Any need for requalification and revalidation Certification and approval Summary report of finding with conclusion Copies of product stability

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Components Included in cGMP Process Validation All should be validated. Facility Environment People Analytical laboratory Raw materials Equipment Procedures Process

Process Validation Option:

Process Validation Option Prospective Process Validation - performed before the process is put into commercial use Retrospective Validation - done for established products whose manufacturing processes are considered stable Concurrent validation - in process monitoring of critical processing steps and end product testing of current production

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Revalidation - change in critical component(raw material) - change or replacement in a critical piece of equipment. - change in a facility and/or plant - significant increase or decrease in batch size - sequential batches that fail to meet product and process specifications

Semisolids manufacturing consideration:

Semisolids manufacturing consideration 1) Flow diagram Combine oil soluble ingredient in main kettle. Heat to critical temperature. Counter sweep agitation Transfer water phase by pump Combine water soluble ingredient in auxiliary kettle. Heat to critical temperature Transfer finished product by pump into drum or tank Homogenize or pass thru colloid mill while warm. Cool slowly with counter sweep agitator Filling and packaging operation

2) Unit Operation for semisolid System:

2) Unit Operation for semisolid System Five unit operation Mixing of liquid Mixing of solid Mixing of semisolid Dispersing Milling and size reduction of solid and semisolid

1. Mixing of Liquids:

1. Mixing of Liquids Equipment : Kettle and tank fitted with agitator Process variables Properties affected by variables Monitoring Output ▪ Capacity of unit ▪ Shape and position of agitation system ▪ Appearance of liquid ▪ Potency ▪ Order of agitation ▪ Appearance ▪ Rate of addition ▪ Viscosity ▪ pH ▪ Fill volume ▪ Specific gravity ▪ Mixing speed of agitator ▪ Viscosity ▪ Temperature of liquid and time

2. Mixing and Blending of Solid:

2. Mixing and Blending of Solid Equipment : Blade mixture and tumbler Process variable Property affected by variable Monitoring output ▪ Capacity of unit ▪ Mixing speed of unit ▪ Particle size of solids ▪ Potency ▪ Shape of unit and Position of mixing elements within unit ▪ Blend uniformity ▪ Particle size analysis ▪ Product load ▪ Content uniformity ▪ Order of addition of solids to unit mixing time

3. Mixing and Blending of semisolid :

3. Mixing and Blending of semisolid Equipment : Blade mixture and knider Process variable Properties affected by variable Monitoring Output ▪ Type and capacity of unit ▪ Potency ▪ Shape of unit and position of mixing elements within unit ▪ Homogeneity ▪ Content uniformity ▪ Product load ▪ Specific gravity ▪ Viscosity ▪ Temperature ▪ Agitation speed ▪ Viscosity ▪ Density ▪ Mixing time

4. Dispersing:

4. Dispersing Equipment : Homogenizers, Colloid mill, or ultrasonic device Process variables Properties affected by variables Monitoring output ▪ Bore opening/ power setting ▪ Potency ▪ Pressure/rotor speed/power consumption ▪ Particle size of solids ▪ Particle size distribution ▪ Feed rate ▪ Viscosity of liquid ▪ viscosity ▪ Temperature ▪ Dispersion time ▪ Specific gravity ▪ Order of mixing

5. Size Reduction of Solid and Semisolid:

5. Size Reduction of Solid and Semisolid Equipment : end-runner mill, hammer mill, ball mill, colloid mill, micronizer Process variable Properties affected by variables Monitoring output ▪ Mill type ▪ Potency ▪ Mill size ▪ Particle size ▪ Particle size analysis ▪ Mill speed/air pressure ▪ Bulk density ▪ Density/surface area ▪ Product load ▪ Dissolution rate of solid ▪ Dissolution rate/ flow rate of solid ▪ Feed rate

3) Filling and Packaging Operation:

3) Filling and Packaging Operation The following critical aspects must be evaluated and controlled during large-scale validation and manufacturing runs Proper control of product temperature to aid product flow and maintain product consistency before and during filling and packaging operations 2. Proper agitation in holding tanks and filling heads in order to main product uniformity and homogeneity during filling and packaging operation The use of air pressure and inert atmosphere to achieve product performance and stability in the primary container.

Product testing:

Product testing Validation testing of bulk and finished product must be based on testing standard release criteria and in process testing criteria Routine QC release testing should be performed on a routine sample. These samples should be taken separately from the validation samples. Validation sampling and testing typically is 3 to 6 time the usual QC sampling.

Validation Batch :Bulk Sampling :

Validation Batch :Bulk Sampling Take 10 sample from the mixture, tank, or during product transfer to the storage/filling vessel. The samples must represent the top, middle and bottom of the vessel If sampling from the mixture/tank using an specific equipment, samples should be taken immediately adjacent to blades, baffles, and shafts where product movement during mixing may restricted. The bottom of the tank and any potential dead spots should be sampled and examined for unmixed material, if possible.

Sampling Plan:

Sampling Plan Samples must be representative of each filling nozzle. For single filling size ● Take a minimum of 3 fill containers from each of the beginning, middle and end of the filling run. ● The total number of samples must be not less than 10 . ● All samples must be tested. Multiple filling size Take minimum 3 samples each at the beginning and end of the filling size

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OTHER SAMPLING PATTERN • Ten equidistant points across the filling run must be sampled. The beginning and end of filling must be represented. Samples should be taken in triplicate .

Monitoring Output:

Monitoring Output 1) Particle size Consideration Control of particle morphology and particle size are important parameters to attain high quality drug product manufacture and control procedure. Particle size distribution for most disperse system should be in the range of 0.2-20 microns .

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2) Viscosity The Viscometer- Calibrated to measure the apparent viscosity of the disperse system at equilibrium at a given temperature to establish system reproducibility. Consistency type Approximate viscosity in cps at 25 ° C Pharmaceutical example Soft, spreadable 100,000-300,000 W/O, O/W CREAM Plastic flow, spreadable 300,000-1,000,000 Ointment

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3) Content Uniformity Most important parameter governing product stability and process control of the disperse system. In ointment/cream formulation are more dependent on particle size , shear rate , and mixing efficiency in order to attain and maintain uniformity of the active drug component(usually the internal phase).

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Monitoring Output Acceptance Criteria (n = 10) Sampling Plan Content Uniformity UPL & LPL within 90 – 110% LA 3 – 4 units from beginning, middle and end of filling cycle; total = 10 units RSD ≤ 4.2% ● The average result of 10 individual results must meet the release limit for assay. ● The usual sample size for testing ranges between 0.5 and 1.5 g per sample assay.

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4) Preservative effectiveness Incorporating a USP antimicrobial preservative testing procedure or microbial limit test into formal validation of aqueous dispersion. Determination of bio burden for validation and production batches can also be used to establish appropriate validated cleaning procedure for the facilities and equipment used in manufacture of disperse system.

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5) Dissolution Testing : It is primary used as a quality control procedure to determine product uniformity. s econdary as a means of assessing the in vivo absorption of the drug in terms of a possible in vitro/vivo correlation. For cream/ointments, the Franz in vitro flow through diffusion cell has been modified by using silicon rubber membrane barrie r to stimulate percutaneous dissolution unit for testing purpose.

Validation Report:

Validation Report STANDARD FORMAT Executive summary Discussion Conclusions & recommendation List of attachment Topic should be presented in the order in which they appear in the protocol. Protocol deviation are fully explained & justified. The report is signed & dated by designated representatives of each unit involved in water system validation.


References Lieberman H. A. , Rieger M. M. and Banker G. S. “ Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Disperse System” ,vol.3; Second Edition,473-511 R . A. Nash and A. H. Wachter “ Pharmaceutical process validation ”; Third edition Agalloco James, Carleton J. Fredric “ Validation of Pharmaceutical Processes” ; Third edition,417-428

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