architecture, early history

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Outlining architectural venaculars with regards to sustainability and passive solar heating

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DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE TO MEET HUMAN NEEDS : 

DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE TO MEET HUMAN NEEDS Pre history

AIMS : 

AIMS Early history of architecture Determine human needs Identify architectural responses to location (context) Develop understanding of architectural precedent Understand the relevance of ancient architectural precedent to environmental design

Basic needs : 

Basic needs What would you consider to be the basic needs for human survival? Make a short list Is survival enough? After you have met your basic survival needs what would you want to do to make your life more comfortable? Add to your list At that stage do you stop or would there be further improvements to be made? Why? What then do you do with your spare time? Can what we do in that non survival time be defined as ‘Culture’?

Human Needs : 

Human Needs

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs : 

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

Questions to bear in mind : 

Questions to bear in mind Refuge Mobility vs Permenance pros and cons Resources Dis/Advantages of community Implications of multiple communities No man is an island....?

Refuge: Pre-HistoryWe believe..... : 

Refuge: Pre-HistoryWe believe.....

Refuge: Living in a RockProspects and problems : 

Refuge: Living in a RockProspects and problems

Refuge: Living in a Rock : 

Refuge: Living in a Rock Why may these people have moved from their solid homes? What problems might you associate with living in one location? What difficulties might you associate with living in a cave? Do we have any parallels in modern architecture?

Refuge: Living in a Rockenvironmental concerns : 

Refuge: Living in a Rockenvironmental concerns

Refuge: on the moveUsing indigenous materials : 

Refuge: on the moveUsing indigenous materials Bushmen of the lower Congo Basin Skerm

Refuge: on the moveUsing indigenous materials : 

Refuge: on the moveUsing indigenous materials It seems amazing, but these ingenious snow shelters are very comfortable inside, averaging about 65 degrees warmer than the outside air with wind-chill, especially when a lamp is burning. This igloo is shown in a forest, but where do you normally see them? Why?

Refuge: on the moveUsing indigenous materials : 

Refuge: on the moveUsing indigenous materials Igloo plan and Sections Understanding thermal implications 1 Snow has excellent insulating properties, and an igloo works like an inverted container to trap rising warm air. Often native peoples would line the inside of their shelters with animal skin, which increased the amount of heat trapped and prevented structural melting. If the house became too cold, they could plug the chimney with moss or leather; if it became too warm, they could widen the chimney.

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home : 

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home North American Teepee From plains to mountain foothills

REFUGE: ON THE MOVECARRYING YOUR HOME : 

REFUGE: ON THE MOVECARRYING YOUR HOME Look at the shape of the Teepee. Identify the purpose of the shape and construction.

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home : 

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home The Mongolian Yurt

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home : 

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home Another tent another clime . Identify the purpose of the design shape and construction. Closer to permanence? Why?

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home : 

Refuge: on the moveCarrying your home A bedoin’s tent Which colour reflects the most light? So why is the roof of this tent black in the middle of the desert? Identify design principles..& make some sketches

Refuge: effects of communityFrom mobile to semi permanence : 

Refuge: effects of communityFrom mobile to semi permanence Identify design response to environment. What ‘environmental’ influences are being considered here?

Refuge: effects of communityUsing local materials anciently : 

Refuge: effects of communityUsing local materials anciently Viking long house made from turf and timber

Refuge: effects of communityFrom mobile to semi permanence : 

Refuge: effects of communityFrom mobile to semi permanence Identify the design elements that show a response to a harsh climate. What would it be like to live in this building? Here a picture of the inside of the turf house shown on the previous slide and the plan drawn on this one

Refuge: Look familiar? : 

Refuge: Look familiar? Does this shape seem familiar? Identify the design implications for where this is. This is a replica of a Welch (Celtic) round house made from local materials (the clay is red from animal blood)

Permanence from local materials : 

Permanence from local materials Stone house in Ireland note the stone roof Stone huts in the Alps

Task 1 : 

Task 1 Contrast and compare two of the following types of ancient architecture; Greek, Roman, Nordic, Chinese, African, South American, North American What were the structural developments? How did the different types of architecture respond to their environments? Compile your findings, including pictures, for use in your 3000 word report at the end of the year. You may wish to compile your findings in a table to enable quick reading later.

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