Agricultural Trends and Practices In India

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Agricultural Trends In India:

Agricultural Trends In India Jibin Joseph X – A 19


Introduction Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce. The economic contribution of agriculture to India's GDP is steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.


Overview Per 2010 FAO world agriculture statistics, India is the world's largest producer of many fresh fruits and vegetables, milk, major spices, select fresh meats, select fibrous crops such as jute, several staples such as millets and castor oil seed. India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the world's major food staples. India is also the world's second or third largest producer of several dry fruits, agriculture-based textile raw materials, roots and tuber crops, pulses, farmed fish, eggs, coconut, sugarcane and numerous vegetables.


Overview India ranked within the world's five largest producers of over 80% of agricultural produce items, including many cash crops such as coffee and cotton, in 2010. India is also one the world's five largest producers of livestock and poultry meat, with one of the fastest growth rates, as of 2011 .


History Over 50 years since its independence, India has made immense progress towards food security. Indian population has tripled, but food-grain production more than quadrupled: there has thus been substantial increase in available food-grain per capita. Prior to the mid-1960s India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements. However, two years of severe drought in 1965 and 1966 convinced India to reform its agricultural policy, and that India could not rely on foreign aid and foreign imports for food security.


History India adopted significant policy reforms focused on the goal of foodgrain self-sufficiency. This ushered in India's Green Revolution. It began with the decision to adopt superior yielding, disease resistant wheat varieties in combination with better farming knowledge to improve productivity. The Indian state of Punjab led India's green revolution and earned itself the distinction of being the country's bread basket.

Types Of Farming:

Types Of Farming In India

Dry Farming:

Dry Farming Dry farming is a system under which farming is carried on in the regions where the rainfall is scanty i.e. less than 50 Cm annually and where irrigation facilities are either absent or very little. It is followed in Gujarat, Rajasthan, South Punjab, Northern Maharashtra; Generally, single-cropping is practised under this system. Under this system, only those crops which can withstand drought conditions, such as Jowar and Bajra are grown.

Humid Farming:

Humid Farming Humid Farming is a system of farming practised in regions where the rainfall is adequate i.e. between 100 Cm to 200 Cm without the help of irrigation. It is followed in the West Coast, West Bengal, Parts of Bihar, U.P and Assam. Under this system, generally, double cropping (i.e. growing of two crops in a year on the same land) is practised. Rice, Sugarcane, jute etc. are cultivated under this system.

Irrigation Farming:

Irrigation Farming Irrigation farming is a system of farming under which crops are grown with the help of irrigation i.e. supply of water from rivers, reservoirs, tanks, wells to land for cultivation in regions of seasonal or low rainfall. It is followed in Western U.P., Punjab, Haryana, parts of Bihar, Orissa, A.P., Tamil Nadu, Karnataka etc. Under this system, multiple or double cropping is practiced. A large variety of crops, such as rice, sugarcane, cotton, wheat, tobacco etc. are grown under this system.

Shifting Cultivation:

Shifting Cultivation Shifting cultivation means the migratory subsistence farming. Under this system, a plot of land is cultivated for a few years and then, when the crop yield declines because of soil exhaustion and the effects of pests and weeds, is deserted for another area. Here the ground is again cleared by slash-and-burn methods, and the procedure is repeated.

Plantation Farming:

Plantation Farming Plantation farming means the cultivation of a single cash crop in plantations or estates (large areas of land) on a large scale. The farming is carried on with the help of technically advanced methods of cultivation and tools. The tea plantations of Assam and West Bengal, coffee plantations of Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu and rubber plantations of Kerala are the examples of Plantation farming in India.

Emerging Trends:

Emerging Trends in Indian Agriculture

Trends in Indian Agriculture:

Trends in Indian Agriculture Increasing integration of agriculture with the new emerging agri -system comprising Rural Business/Service Hubs (RBHs) at the back end, and agro-processing industry and organized retailing at the front end — primarily driven by the corporate sector . And the issue here is: Can the fast scaling up corporate sector in agri-business mainstream the fragmenting smallholders?

Trends in Indian Agriculture:

Trends in Indian Agriculture The increasing role of the corporate sector in agriculture by infusing new technologies and accessing new markets. And the key issue here is: Will the next revolution in Indian agriculture be triggered by the corporate sector?

Trends in Indian Agriculture:

Trends in Indian Agriculture There is a wide variation in agricultural growth across different states in India at least during the last five-seven years or so. At one end of the spectrum there are states like Gujarat that are showing strong growth of 8-10 per cent per annum in agriculture, while at the other end are states like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, etc., that are growing barely at 1-2.5 per cent per annum. And the issue here is : Can these states learn some lessons from the fast moving states and pull up the overall performance of Indian agriculture?

Trends in Indian Agriculture:

Trends in Indian Agriculture Click Here for more Information

Jibin Joseph Class X – A 19:

Jibin Joseph Class X – A 19

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