A seminar Renewable Energy sources

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RENEWABLE ENERGY :

RENEWABLE ENERGY Seminar on Presented by: Under the guidance of: Siddhant Sadangi Dr. (Prof.) U. P. Singh Roll No. 1107210 Associate Professor Sec: EEE-4 School of Electronics Engineering KIIT UNIVERSITY BHUBANESWAR

Definition::

Definition: Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. [1]

Overview::

Overview: Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, plant growth, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. [2]

Overview::

Overview: Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services: [3] Power generation . Renewable energy provides 21.7% of electricity generation worldwide as of 2013. [4] Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas. Heating . Solar hot water makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth ). The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. [5] Transport fuels . Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. [5] The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5% of world gasoline production. [5]

History::

History: Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, nearly all energy used was renewable. The oldest known use of renewable energy, in the form of traditional biomass to fuel fires, dates from 790,000 years ago. [ 11] Probably the second oldest usage of renewable energy is harnessing the wind in order to drive ships over water. This practice can be traced back some 7000 years, to ships on the Nile . [12] Moving into the time of recorded history, the primary sources of traditional renewable energy were human labor, animal power, water power, wind, in grain crushing windmills, and firewood, a traditional biomass. In the 1970s, the first electricity generating wind turbines appeared. Solar had long been used for heating and cooling, but solar panels were too costly to build solar farms until 1980.

Mainstream Technologies:

Mainstream Technologies

Wind power::

Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases up to the maximum output for the particular turbine. [ 13] Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand The 845 MW Shepherds Flat Wind Farm near Arlington, Oregon, USA [14] Wind power:

Hydropower: :

Hydropower: Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without the creation of a large reservoir. Wave power , that captures the energy of ocean surface waves, and tidal power , converting the energy of tides, are two forms of hydropower with future potential, however, not yet widely employed commercially, while ocean thermal energy conversion , that uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer surface waters, has currently no economic feasibility.

Solar energy::

Solar energy: Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Active solar technologies encompass solar thermal energy, using solar collectors for heating, and solar power, converting sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). A photovoltaic system converts light into electrical direct current (DC) by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect. [ 15] Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.

Biomass::

Biomass: Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal , chemical , and biochemical methods . Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants and a variety of tree species. Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy. The grain can be used for liquid transportation fuels while the straw can be burned to produce heat or electricity .

Biofuel::

Biofuel: Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biofuels, liquid biofuels, and gaseous biofuels . [16] Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols , such as bioethanol , and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. These include maize, sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe. Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010.

Geothermal energy::

Geothermal energy: Geothermal energy is from thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80 %). [17] From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation. Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland [18]

Commercialisation :

Commercialisation

Global growth of renewables:[6]:

Global growth of renewables : [6] Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually. More wind power capacity was added during 2009 than any other renewable technology. However, grid-connected PV increased the fastest of all renewables technologies, with a 60% annual average growth rate . [3] In 2010, renewable power constituted about a third of the newly built power generation capacities . [7] Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel.

Global growth of renewables::

At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply . Some 120 countries have various policy targets for longer-term shares of renewable energy, including a 20% target of all electricity generated for the European Union by 2020. Some countries have much higher long-term policy targets of up to 100% renewables . Outside Europe, a diverse group of 20 or more other countries target renewable energy shares in the 2020–2030 time frame that range from 10% to 50 %. [8] Projections vary, but scientists have advanced a plan to power 100% of the world's energy with wind, hydroelectric, and solar power by the year 2030 . [9][10] Global growth of renewables :

Economic trends::

Economic trends: Renewable energy technologies are getting cheaper, through technological change and through the benefits of mass production and market competition . Hydro-electricity and geothermal electricity produced at favourable sites are now the cheapest way to generate electricity. Renewable energy costs continue to drop, and the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) is declining for wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and some biomass technologies . [19] Renewable energy is also the most economic solution for new grid-connected capacity in areas with good resources . Where "oil-fired generation is the predominant power generation source (e.g. on islands, off-grid and in some countries) a lower-cost renewable solution almost always exists today ". [19]

Hydroelectricity::

Hydroelectricity: The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay in second place (14,000 MW). The Three Gorges Dam is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (3,115 MW). As of 2012, the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,615 MW. In 2008, this complex generated 98 TWh of electricity (81 TWh from the Three Gorges Dam and 17 TWh from the Gezhouba Dam), which is 3% more power in one year than the 95 TWh generated by Itaipu in 2008.

Wind power::

Wind power: From 2004 to 2014, worldwide installed capacity of Wind power has been growing from 47 GW to 369 GW—a more than seven fold increase within 10 years with 2014 breaking a new record in global installations (51 GW ). [20]

Solar thermal::

Solar thermal: The solar thermal power industry is growing rapidly with 1.3 GW under construction in 2012 and more planned. Spain is the epicenter of solar thermal power development with 873 MW under construction, and a further 271 MW under development . [21] In the United States, 5,600 MW of solar thermal power projects have been announced . [22] Several power plants have been constructed in the Mojave Desert, Southwestern United States. In developing countries, three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants in Egypt, Mexico, and Morocco have been approved.

Photovoltaic::

Photovoltaic: It's a fast-growing technology, doubling its worldwide installed capacity every couple of years . In recent years, PV technology has improved its electricity generating efficiency, reduced the installation cost per watt as well as its energy payback time (EPBT), and has reached grid parity in at least 19 different markets by 2014. At the end of 2013, worldwide PV capacity reached 139,000 megawatts. Photovoltaics grew fastest in China (+11.8 GW), followed by Japan (+6.9 GW) and the United States (+4.75 GW), while Germany remains the world's largest overall producer of photovoltaic power with a total capacity of 35.5 GW, contributing almost 6 percent to the overall electricity generation. Italy meets 7 percent of its electricity demands with photovoltaic power—the highest share worldwide . For 2014, global photovoltaic capacity is estimated to increase by another 45 gigawatts (GW ). [23] By 2018, worldwide capacity is projected to reach as much as 430 gigawatts . This corresponds to a tripling within five years . [24]

Geothermal::

Geothermal: The International Geothermal Association (IGA) has reported that 10,715 MW of geothermal power in 24 countries is online, which is expected to generate 67,246 GWh of electricity in 2010 . [25] This represents a 20% increase in geothermal power online capacity since 2005. IGA projects this will grow to 18,500 MW by 2015, due to the large number of projects presently under consideration, often in areas previously assumed to have little exploitable resource . [25]

References::

References: Omar Ellabban , Haitham Abu-Rub, Frede Blaabjerg , Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 39, (2014), 748–764, p 749, doi : 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.113 . Steve Leone (25 August 2011). "U.N. Secretary-General: Renewables Can End Energy Poverty" . Renewable Energy World . REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 15. Historical Data Workbook (2013 calendar year) REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 53. "REN21, Renewables Global Status Report 2012" . Ren21.net. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014 . UNEP, Bloomberg, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 、Figure 24. REN21 (2013). " Renewables global futures report 2013" . Jacobson, Mark Z.; Delucchi , M.A. (November 2009). "A Path to Sustainable Energy by 2030" (PDF). Scientific American 301 (5): 58–65. doi : 10.1038/scientificamerican1109-58 . PMID   19873905 .

References::

References: Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi , M. A. (2011). "Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials". Energy Policy 39 (3): 1154. doi : 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.11.040 . K. Kris Hirst . "The Discovery of Fire" . About.com . Retrieved 15 January 2013. " wind energy" . The Encyclopedia of Alternative Energy and Sustainable Living . Retrieved 15 January 2013. "Analysis of Wind Energy in the EU-25" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 11 March 2007. Steve Wilson from Orpington , UK "Energy Sources: Solar" . Department of Energy . Retrieved 19 April 2011 . Demirbas , A. . (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy 86 : S108–S117. doi : 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.04.036 . Turcotte , D. L.; Schubert, G. (2002), "4", Geodynamics (2 ed.), Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 136–137, ISBN   978-0-521-66624-4 Gretar Ívarsson – Edited by Fir0002 - Gretar Ívarsson , geologist at Nesjavellir

References::

References: International Renewable Energy Agency (2012). "Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012: An Overview " . "GWEC Global Wind Statistics 2014" (PDF). GWEC. 10 February 2015 . "Global Concentrating Solar Power" . International Renewable Energy Agency. June 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012 . "Solar Thermal Projects Under Review or Announced" . Energy.ca.gov. Retrieved 21 November 2011 . Solar Installations to Rise 20 Percent in 2014, Thanks to Strong Fourth Quarter , 8 October 2014 "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" . www.epia.org . EPIA - European Photovoltaic Industry Association. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014 . Geothermal Energy Association. Geothermal Energy: International Market Update May 2010, p. 4-6.

Credits::

Opening slide background: geology.com Slides background: imgarcade.com Global energy potential: Rfassbind - Own work. Perez et al., 2009, "A Fundamental Look At Energy Reserves For The Planet", p.3, PDF ( archived ) Credits:

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