source finance


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Sources of Finance: 

Sources of Finance

Sources of Finance: 

Sources of Finance

Business Growth: 

Business Growth

Internal Sources of Finance and Growth: 

Internal Sources of Finance and Growth ‘Organic growth’ – growth generated through the development and expansion of the business itself. Can be achieved through: Generating increasing sales – increasing revenue to impact on overall profit levels Use of retained profit – used to reinvest in the business Sale of assets – can be a double edged sword – reduces capacity? Selling more goods and services to consumers is one way to grow the business. Title: Home Depot quarterly profit rises 53%. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery

External Sources of Finance: 

External Sources of Finance Long Term – may be paid back after many years or not at all! Short Term – used to cover fluctuations in cash flow ‘Inorganic Growth’ – growth generated by acquisition The existence of capital markets enable firms to raise long term loans and share capital. Title: Dow up on Wall Street. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery

Long Term: 

Long Term Shares (Shareholders are part owners of a company) Ordinary Shares (Equities): Ordinary shareholders have voting rights Dividend can vary Last to be paid back in event of collapse Share price varies with trade on stock exchange Preference Shares: Paid before ordinary shareholders Fixed rate of return Cumulative preference shareholders – have right to dividend carried over to next year in event of non-payment New Share Issues – arranged by merchant or investment banks Rights Issue – existing shareholders given right to buy new shares at discounted rate Bonus or Scrip Issue – change to the share structure – increases number of shares and reduces value but market capitalisation stays the same

Long term: 

Long term Loans (Represent creditors to the company – not owners) Debentures – fixed rate of return, first to be paid Bank loans and mortgages – suitable for small to medium sized firms where property or some other asset acts as security for the loan Merchant or Investment Banks – act on behalf of clients to organise and underwrite raising finance Government/EU – may offer loans in certain circumstances Grants

Short Term: 

Short Term Bank loans – necessity of paying interest on the payment, repayment periods from 1 year upwards but generally no longer than 5 or 10 years at most Overdraft facilities – the right to be able to withdraw funds you do not currently have Provides flexibility for a firm Interest only paid on the amount overdrawn Overdraft limit – the maximum amount allowed to be drawn - the firm does not have to use all of this limit Trade credit – Careful management of trade credit can help ease cash flow – usually between 28 and 90 days to pay Factoring – the sale of debt to a specialist firm who secures payment and charges a commission for the service. Leasing – provides the opportunity to secure the use of capital without ownership – effectively a hire agreement

'Inorganic Growth': 

'Inorganic Growth' Acquisitions The necessity of financing external inorganic growth Merger: firms agree to join together – both may retain some form of identity Takeover: One firm secures control of the other, the firm taken over may lose its identity Safeway – subject to a £3 billion takeover by Morrisons. Securing the £3 billion necessary is a specialist job.

Business Angels: 

Business Angels

Business Angels: 

Business Angels Individuals looking for investment opportunities Generally small sums up to £100,000 Could be an individual or a small group Generally have some say in the running of the company

Venture Capital: 

Venture Capital

Venture Capital: 

Venture Capital Pooling of capital in the form of limited companies – Venture Capital Companies Looking for investment opportunities in fast growing businesses or businesses with highly rated prospects May also buy out firms in administration who are going concerns May also provide advice, contacts and experience In the UK, venture capitalists have invested £50 billion since 1983

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