Syllogisms

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LOGICAL REASONING FOR CAT

LOGICAL DEDUCTIONS:

LOGICAL DEDUCTIONS

Logical Premises:

Logical Premises All As are Bs Premise Quantifier Subject Predicate

Venn Diagrams:

Venn Diagrams All As are Bs No A is B B A B A

Venn Diagrams:

Venn Diagrams Some As are Not Bs Some As are Bs B A B A A B B A A B B A A B

QUANTIFIERS:

QUANTIFIERS Basic Quantifier Premise Quantifier Subject Predicate All Affirmative Universal No Negative Universal Some Affirmative Particular Some Not Negative Particular

Rules:

Rules The middle term must not appear in the conclusion All As are Bs All Bs are Cs Conclusion cannot contain B Middle Term

Rules:

Rules When both premises are affirmative, conclusion cannot be negative All As are Bs Some Bs are Cs Then, conclusion should have only All or Some as the quantifier.

Rules:

Rules There must be 3 and only 3 distinct terms When both premises are particular no conclusion can be derived Some + some not, some + some, etc… When both premises are negative, no conclusion can be derived No + no, no + some not, some not + some not

Rules:

Rules The middle term must be distributed at least once. All As are Bs , Some Bs are Cs All As are Bs, Some As are Cs

Rules:

Rules If one of the premises is particular, then conclusion is particular Some Bs are Cs All Cs are Ds Conclusion has to have quantifier as some.

Rules:

Rules When One Quantifier is negative, the conclusion must be negative No As are Bs All Bs are Cs Conclusion must have quantifier as some not or No .

Rules:

Rules A term which isn’t distributed in the premise should not be distributed in the conclusion. All As are Bs All Bs are Cs --------------------- Middle Term All As are Cs Some A/Cs are C/As

Lets Try an Example :

Lets Try an Example You say that sappy movies are always bad? I can prove that isn't true. For instance, Steven Spielberg always makes great movies! But some of his movies are sappy. So, some sappy movies are also great.

Solution:

Solution All Steven Speilberg movies are Great Some Steven Speilberg movies are sappy Answer is and particular Some Sappy movies are Great

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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