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Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Heather Enos, Ed.S . BCBA University of Colorado at Denver Naturalistic Teaching Strategies

Outcomes For today::

Outcomes For today: Understanding of Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Review of Research about NTS Evidence for Practice Characteristics of Learners

Natural Environments:

Natural Environments Federal Definition: “settings that are natural or normal for the child’s age peers who have no disabilities” (34 CFR Part 303.18) In other words: Everyday community activities Learning of functional skills Learning of adaptive skills

Naturalistic teaching strategies:

Naturalistic teaching strategies National Standards Report 32 Studies Evidence Level: Established Skills Increased: Communication, Interpersonal, Learning Readiness, & Play Ages: 0-9 Autistic Disorder & PDD- NOS What must you provide? EI Guidelines Increase: generalized language & social skills Child-oriented rather than adult oriented Intentional Plan Identify goals & then activities that can offer teachable moments

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies?:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies? What is generalization? The ability to perform any acquired skill across different stimuli and settings

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies - Generalization:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies - Generalization Stokes & Baer (1977) Identify naturally maintaining contingencies Use common stimuli Provide specific examples Train loosely Specifically teach generalization

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies - Generalization:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies - Generalization How is generalization achieved? Teach in a controlled environment then gradually vary the materials, location, and instructor Embed into teaching from the beginning using naturalistic procedures Take advantage of naturally occurring events in a child’s day to teach and maintain new skills

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Six essential components of naturalistic teaching strategies: Use direct and natural consequences Reinforcement is meaningful and related to the skill Direct response- reinforcer relationship Naturally available in the environment

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Six essential components of naturalistic teaching strategies: 2. Use a variety of materials and teach in across a variety of settings teachers Materials s ettings time

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Six essential components of naturalistic teaching strategies: 3. Programming common stimuli Teach concepts related to materials available in the child’s daily environment across routine activities

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Six essential components of naturalistic teaching strategies: 4. Teach functional skills teach skills the child is going to use across daily routines

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Six essential components of naturalistic teaching strategies: 5. Follow the child’s lead more likely to identify natural reinforcers Capitalize on the child’s interest and attention

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Six essential components of naturalistic teaching strategies: 6. Loosely structured teaching sessions based on the child’s interest Your teaching shifts with the child’s interest

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Common features: Enhanced motivation by using child preferences Functional behaviors to mand reinforcers are targeted Program for generalization by embedding into routines Securing the child’s attention Following the child’s lead

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies:

Intro to Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Common names: Focused stimulation Incidental teaching Milieu teaching Embedded teaching Responsive education Prelinguistic milieu teaching

Incidental Teaching :

Incidental Teaching “a systematic protocol of instruction that is provided in the context of natural environments ” (McGee, 1999)

Components:

Components The Walden Program, which was developed using incidental teaching includes a strong family training component, as well as planned environmental arrangement to illicit communication. • A natural environment is arranged to attract children to desired materials and activities • The child “initiates” the teaching process by indicating an interest in an item or topic

Components:

Components • The teacher uses the child’s initiation as an opportunity to prompt an elaborate • The child’s correct response to the teacher’s prompt results in a confirming response, then contingent access to the item/topic of interest.

Incidental Teaching:

Incidental Teaching The program is very structured and works on individual goals within planned activities. The program includes typical toddlers and toddlers with autism, between the ages of 15 and 36 months.

Steps of IT Fenske, Krantz, and McClannahan (2001):

Steps of IT Fenske , Krantz , and McClannahan (2001) Arrange a setting that contains materials of interest to the child Wait for the child to initiate an interaction about an object of interest Ask for more elaborate language, or approximations to speech Provide the object for which the child initiated Practice!

Differences Between DTT and IT Fenske et al. (2001) :

Differences Between DTT and IT Fenske et al. (2001) Discrete Trial Training Incidental Teaching Teacher-initiated Child-initiated Structured learning environment Natural environment Teacher-selected materials and reinforcers Child-selected materials and reinforcers Does this comparison mean you should do only one and not the other?

Slide22:

Discrete Trial Training Incidental Teaching Same target responses for several successive episodes No particular order of target responses within a session Prompts remain constant for particular responses Prompt vary according to the student’s initiations Presentation of reinforcer contingent upon correct response or successive approximation Both correct responses and attempts to respond are positively reinforced Differences Between DDT and IT Fenske et al. (2001)

Research on IT:

Research on IT Has been used to teach: Children with autism to receptively identify items required to make lunch (McGee, Krantz , Mason, and McClannahan , 1983) Children with autism to request using prepositions (McGee et al., 1985 ) Children with autism to read sight words on tokens before exchanging them ( Fabry , Mayhew, & Hansen, 1984)

Research on IT:

Research on IT Children with autism to select the name of the toy desired (McGee, Krantz , & McClannahan , 1986) Children with autism and profound MR to sign ( Schepis , Reid, Fitzgerald, Faw , Van Den Pol, & Welty, 1982) Adults with autism and MR to request food during peer tutoring (Farmer- Dougan , 1994) Studies have shown facilitation of acquisition AND generalization

Positive Effects:

Positive Effects Increases child use of language targets Vocabulary (Kaiser et al, 1993; Scherer & Kaiser, in press) Early syntactic forms (Kaiser & Hester, 1994) Moderately complex syntax (Warren & Kaiser, 1986) Increases child frequency of communication (Warren et al, 1994; Kaiser et al, 1993)

Positive Effects:

Positive Effects Results in generalization across settings, people, and language concepts (Warren & Bambara , 1989;Goldstein & Mousetis , 1989) Results in maintenance of newly learned targets (Warren & Kaiser, 1986) Is more effective than drill-practice methods for early language learners (Yoder, Kaiser et Alpert, 1991; Kaiser, Yoder, et al., 1996)

Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Summary:

Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Summary Presenting learning opportunities in the child ’ s natural environment Utilizes child selected materials/activities Utilizes the child ’ s natural motivation and reinforcers Used in teaching a variety of socially relevant behaviors Expands on individuals use of language Incorporates use of commenting about child ’ s behavior Take advantage of naturally occurring events in a child ’ s day to teach and maintain new skills

Next Week::

Next Week: Assignment Discussion Questions??

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