Acute Low Back Pain

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Acute Low Back Pain:

Acute Low Back Pain Richard W. Kendall, DO. Assistant Professor Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Outline:

Outline Introduction / Epidemiology. Most Important lecture!! Anatomy / Pain generators Diagnosis Treatment

Course Objectives:

Course Objectives Know the RED FLAGS in history taking. Know the Pain Generators of the Lumbar spine Know the Guidelines for Imaging of the spine with acute low back pain. Know the general guidelines to rehabilitation.

Epidemiology of Back Pain:

Epidemiology of Back Pain Who gets it? 60-90% lifetime prevalence. 80-90% have recurrent episode. What is the Natural history? 80-90% resolves in 1 month. 20-30% remains “chronic” 5-10% “disabling”

Anatomy:

Anatomy 5 lumbar vertebra Transitional segments Components Body Pedicles Facets Lamina Spinous and transverse processes

Typical Vertebra:

Typical Vertebra

Vertebral Body:

Vertebral Body End- plate attachment Tall (L1).. Wide (L5) L3 Square

Posterior Elements:

Posterior Elements Spinous Process Lamina Pedicle Transverse process

Lumbar Intervertebral Disc:

Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Annulus Fibrosis Dense connective tissue, interwoven matrix Outer 1/3 innervated from sinuvertebral nerve and gray rami communicans. Concentric layers attaching to end plates Nucleus pulposus 80-90% water, mucuopolysaccharide, collagen.

PowerPoint Presentation:

*From Caliet, " Low Back Pain Syndarome", 4th Ed.

Zygopophyseal Joints:

Zygopophyseal Joints Joint Capsule Meniscoid 10% wt bearing Sagital plane L1 45° orientation L5.

Lumbar ligaments:

Lumbar ligaments ALL PLL Ligamentum flavum Facet capsules Interspinous ligaments Supraspinous ligaments

Muscle Layers:

Muscle Layers Deep Multifidus, Quadratus lumborum Iliocostalis, longissimus, (Erector s.) Superficial Thoracolumbar fascia Lattisimus dorsi

Nerves and Vessels:

Nerves and Vessels Neural Foramen Spinal Nerve Dorsal Root ganglion Relationships

Pain Generators:

Pain Generators Annulus Fibrosis (outer 1/3 only?) Periosteum Neural Membranes (Anterior Dura) Ligaments/ Z-joint capsules Muscles.

Diagnostic:

Diagnostic Pain- location (radiation), qualitative, what makes pain better / worse. Neurologic Symptoms Paresthesias. Bladder /Bowel retention or incontinence. Weakness.

Diagnostic :

Diagnostic History: RED FLAGS Trauma, Age >50, Hx of CA, Unexplained wt loss, fever or immunnosupression, IV Drug use, Neurologic deficit.

Examination:

Examination Range of Motion (document range and pain) Flexion- 40 ° Extension- 15° Lateral bending- 30° Rotation- 45°

Neurologic Examination I:

Neurologic Examination I Strength tests L1, L2- Hip flexion (Psoas, rectus femoris) L2,3,4 – Knee extension (Quads) L2,3,4 -- Hip adductors (adductors and gracilis) L5 – ankle/ toe dorsiflexion (ant. Tibialis, EHL) L5– Hip abductors (gluteus medius, TFL) S1- ankle plantarflexion (gastroc/ soleus) S1– Hip extensors (Gluteus max., Hamstrings)

Neurological examination II:

Neurological examination II Reflexes L2,3,4- Quads L5- Medial hamstring S1- Achilles Sensation Pin prick- primarily spinothalamic tract Vibration/ position sense- dorsal columns Vibration tested with 256cps fork! Position on 3-4 th digit

Provocative Maneuvers:

Provocative Maneuvers Straight Leg Raise (supine or seated) For L5-S2 radicular symptoms Femoral Stretch For L2-4 radicular symptoms FABER’s test For SI joint, hip joint, lumbar z-joint symptoms

Provocative Manuvers Seated SLR (Slump Test) Standing Femoral Stretch:

Provocative Manuvers Seated SLR (Slump Test) Standing Femoral Stretch

Imaging or Not?:

Imaging or Not? Low yield without RED FLAGS present. “Abnormal” findings in Asymptomatic. Jarvik- LAIDback study. Psychological. Anxiety, fear-avoidance- possibly help? Depression- “there must be something wrong”

Guidelines for Imaging:

Guidelines for Imaging NO RED FLAGS! Acute pain- symptomatic treatment for 4 weeks, re-evaluate. Image if pain continues. AHCPR Guidelines for Acute LBP. Sub acute pain- Pain for >4wks. Failed symptomatic treatment. Image. Chronic pain- none, unless changes in sx’s Chronic intermittent- TX as acute patients

Treatments:

Treatments

Medications:

Medications NSAID’s- anti-inflammatory, mild pain relief. Tylenol- mild- moderate pain relief. Narcotics- moderate to severe pain. (fail above). Anticonvulsants- neurogenic pain. TCA’s- neurogenic symptoms, paresthesias. Muscle relaxants- acute spasm.

General Therapy Guidelines:

General Therapy Guidelines Pain Control (symptomatic TX.). Tissue injury (physiologic TX.) Motion in Pain-free range. Restore Full pain free range of motion. Core CONTROL for Neutral spine. Restore Muscle ENDURANCE . Restore Functional movements.

Therapies:

Therapies Bed Rest. Less than 2 days. ROM. Lower extremity, multifidus, lats. Core strengthening. Transversus Ab., quadratus, multifidus, glutes. Multiplanar exercises.

Modalities:

Modalities Thermal (hot/cold) Ultrasound Electrical Stimulation (NMES) TENS (transcutaneous electrical neurostim.) Bracing

Injections:

Injections Epidural procedures Helpful in radicular pain and stenosis Z-joint Blocks Short-term relief for furthering therapy. Medial branch blocks radiofrequency lesions.

Who needs Surgery?:

Who needs Surgery? Unstable Spine Acute fractures with Neurologic deficit. Severe Stenosis After failure of aggressive non-operative tx. Tumor? Progressive Neurologic deficit

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