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Donna Carroll Emerging and Obsolete Technology Walden University

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Obsolete Technology A technology that can be replaced by a newer emerging technology.

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A technology that is new to the environment or situation is an emergent technology. According to Thornburg, an emergent technology improves the lives of the community it is in. With this definition an emergent technology is different to the different cultures. Emergent Technology

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Overhead Projector!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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Why were the overhead projectors purchased? Jane Weeks( Veteran Teacher): Was asked why were the overhead projectors purchased? Response: We were excited to be able to project images and charts and notes on the board for all to see. The appeal to able to interact with students was also a plus. Through the years we were able to use transparency sheets to project graphs and sentence dictation and then leave it and come back later without having to erase the board and start over.

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Interactive Whiteboards

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Enhances: * larger images on for students to see * Transparent sheets can be used to copy any print material for large class viewing * M anipulatives were made for demonstration purposes making it easier for the teacher to demonstrate Obsoletes: *large posters * charts * numerous copies of papers for demonstration only *opaque projector Retrieves: * opaque projectors * chalk boards Reverses: * interactive whiteboards * SMARTBoard Overhed Projectors Tetrad 1: Overhead Projector:

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Enhances: * interactivity of lessons * displays images from computer screens for all to see * accommodates different learning styles *learners are actively engaged * students with disabilities or limited speech can still be an active participant Obsoletes: * overhead projectors * whiteboards * need for lots of copies Reverses: * individual interactive boards fro students that communicates with the larger board. * interactive boards that go on body movements such as the gaming systems of today like the WII or the kinnect * 3D Holographic projection Retrieval: * overhead projectors * LCD projectors SMARTBoard Tetrad 2: SMARTBoard

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Evolutionary Technology: When a technology goes through a predictable nonlinear process that makes the technology more powerful over time (Thornburg, 2011). Technology becomes cheaper Technology becomes faster Technology more accessible

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Evolutionary Technology To get to the emerged technolog y of today we must start with the past Opaque Projector!!!! Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about_6630866_history-opaque-projector.html

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Uses of the opaque projector: Families used them in their homes to show slides of pictures Educators used them to project images on the board . Images could be projected then traced or drawn Images of book pages, leaves, specimens can all be projected for all to see. http://www.answers.com/topic/opaque-projector

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Through the evolution of technology the opaque projector was replaced and the overhead projector soon became the hottest technology for educators in the late 1980’s and 1990’s. Evolutionary Technology

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Benefits of the overhead projector Teachers can now face the class and interact with the students. Teachers can prepare tables and graphs to be used multiple times with multiple classes. Many companies prepared special manipulatives to be used with overheads, no longer requiring juggling large manipulatives for the class to see. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-is-an-overhead-projector.html

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Evolutionary Technology As technology changed the overhead projector became an obsolete technology around my school and has since been replaced by an emerging technology. This new emerging technology is the SMART Board.

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First introduced in 1991 by the technology company SMART. Began as a way to project images from a computer to a screen. Now the board are interactive. All operations can be controlled from the board. Students can play interactive games. Companies can use the board for presentations Anything on the computer can be done on the board for the whole class to “participate”. The boards have digital pens for writing on the boards. All information could be saved as it is and come back to for the future or to finish a lecture. http://www.ehow.com/facts_4915092_what-history-smart-board.html

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Why did the overhead projector become obsolete at Cook Primary School? According to Jane Weeks, (veteran teacher), the children are coming to school with a vast array of technology experience. She also believed that to keep the interest of the students the school must advance with the students and find ways to keep them engaged. ( from interview on Jan 5, 2011).

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Rhymes of History According to Dr. Thornburgh, rhymes of history is the affect that a new technology has that makes it rekindle something from the past.

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Rhymes of History The opaque projector was the predecessor to the overhead. Both are very similar in the way the information is presented. Both technologies help the teacher be able to visually present information.

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Rhymes of History From Overhead to SMART Board Children’s games become interactive( Wii , Xbox Kinnect ). The next generation needs interaction but teachers still want to visually use the same teaching methods. The interactive whiteboard is born meshing both worlds together.

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Rhymes of History Now that the interactive whiteboard is in- the supply closets are now full of overhead projectors. The interactive white boards continue to give the visual learner the visual aspects but now the teachers can also tap into the kinesthetic learner who learns by doing and manipulating .

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Disruptive Technology A disruptive technology is when a new technology comes along either on purpose or by accident that changes the path of another technology.

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Disruptive Technology The overhead projector in my opinion was a result of disruptive technology for educational use. Much of its start was in the military ro be used for missions and demonstrations. Overtime it become a very important tool for the education market with many companies gearing ready made materials for the overhead projector.

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Disruptive Technology The SMART Board’s intended use all along has been to be able to show presentations interactively and for participants to play a role in the learning. However, the disruptive factor is that the boards have taken off so fast considering their price of nearly $3,000.00.

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Disruptive TEchnology In an interview with Rebecca Noles a member of the technology committee the q uestion was asked : Why did the committee decide to purchase SMART Boards for all the classroom this past year with the price being so high? Response: Out of all the technology looked at the SMART Boards were the one piece of technology that we hope would continue to be used for years and years and that the children can also get the most use of. She was also asked why she thought they have replaced the overhead projectors? Response: The interactivity– before students couldn’t really interact that well and also if a teacher is teaching a lesson and she need to show a picture of a cell she/he can in less than five minutes have a great big cell projected on the screen for all to see.

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Science Fiction According to Thornburg, science fiction in movies and books sometimes trigger the imagination of inventors.

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Science Fiction I do not believe that science fiction played a role in the overhead projector becoming an emerged or obsolete technology. This technology was just a way to project an image onto a screen.

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Science Fiction Many futuristic movies depict touch activated technology and large interactive screens. Both of these are characteristics of the interactive whiteboard. Who knows it’s inception could have been thought of years ago from watching a movie. I have also seen many versions of the iPad in movies long before the iPad and it to me is very similar to the interactive whiteboard but smaller

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According to Dr. Thornburg, an increasing return is when two technologies emerge at similar times but one technology gets locked in and the other is forced out. Increasing Returns

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Increasing Returns I believe that the competition between the overhead projector and the opaque projector are examples of increasing returns. The overhead projector took off and the opaque projector became the obsolete technology.

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Increasing Returns The competition for the SMART Board is with the other interactive whiteboard companies. Promethean

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Red Queens Red Queens according to Thornburg, is when there is a huge competition between two technologies and in the process all the other technologies fall off or to the wayside.

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Red Queens The overhead projector nor the Smart Board are a product of red queens. Neither one of these technologies had a fierce competition fighting for the top spot.

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How Long? I believe that the SMART Boards have a lot of years left before we see it being replaced by something new. The companies that have the technology are improving the software and designing more features making them a must for every classroom for years to com .

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What does the future hold? Holographic imaging Currently Sanyo and MIT are working on projectors that will project holographic images.

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Thank You!!!!!!

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Resources Answers.com. Opaque Projectors. Retrieved on February 15, 2011 from: http://www.answers.com/topic/opaque-projector Bantwall , N. What is an Opaque Projector? Retrieved on February 15, 2011from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-is-an-overhead-projector.html Daniels, R. (2010). The history of the Opaque Projector. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about_6630866_history-opaque-projector.html Springgay , J. (2010) What is the history of the SMART Board? Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/facts_4915092_what-history-smart-board.html Thornburg, D. (Producer). ( nd ). Evolutionary Technologies. [Video Podcast]. Laureate Education, Inc. Thornburg, D. (Producer). ( nd ). McLuhan Tetrad. [Video Podcast]. Laureate Education, Inc

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Thornburg, D. (Producer). ( nd ). Six forces that drive emerging technology. [Video Podcast]. Laureate Education, Inc. Thornburg, D. (Producer). ( nd ). What is emerging technology? [Video Podcast]. Laureate Education, Inc. Thornburg, D. (2008). Red Queens, butterflies, and strange attractors: Imperfect lenses into emergent technologies. Lake Barrington, IL: Thornburg Center for Space Exploration. Thornburg, D. (2009). When is a Technology Emergent?. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/courses/14936/CRS-WUEDUC8812- 3730077/when_is_a_technology_emergent.pdf

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