PowerPoint3 Empires of the Ancient World

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Empires of the Ancient World: 

Empires of the Ancient World World History A Seminar #3 Warm Up – Define the following: 1. civilization 2. democracy 3. republic 4. rule of law

Warm Up Definitions: 

Warm Up Definitions Civilization – complex, highly organized social order. Democracy – government in which the people hold ruling power. Republic – system of government in which representatives are chosen by the people. It is a form of democracy Rule of law - government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure.

Greek Civilization 1750 BC – 133 BC: 

Greek Civilization 1750 BC – 133 BC Early Minoan civilization – the forerunner for Greece - began on the island of Crete, around 1700 BC. Evidence shows extensive trade and a very advanced culture, which was exported to mainland Greece at Mycenaea. See textbook map on page 106. Locate Crete. Then, answer question 2 under the map. Mycenaea Click here for online information about Mycenaean culture.

Greek Civilization 1750 BC – 133 BC: 

Greek Civilization 1750 BC – 133 BC Early Minoan civilization – the forerunner for Greece - began on the island of Crete, around 1700 BC. Evidence shows extensive trade and a very advanced culture, which was exported to mainland Greece at Mycenaea. How did the geography of Greece present obstacles to a unified Greek country?

Minoan Civilization: 

Minoan Civilization Minoan Civilization was one of the earliest examples of what has come to be called Greek civilization. Minoans were trading at the same time as the Phoenicians, Egyptians and Babylonians. The Minoan Civilization may have been the foundation for the story of Atlantis. The Palace at Knossos. Click here for more pictures of the palace. Click here for more about the Minoans.

Mycenaeans 1600 BC – 1200 BC: 

Mycenaeans 1600 BC – 1200 BC Sea traders – beyond Aegean to Sicily, Italy, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Warriors, living in several city states. The Mycenaean city state became the mainland Greek civilization. Best known for Trojan War. (textbook, page 103) Click here and on the pictures for more information about Mycenaeans and the Trojan War.

Athens and Sparta (Click above for a web chart comparison of Athens and Sparta.) 1200 – 0 BC Textbook: pages 106-107: 

Athens and Sparta (Click above for a web chart comparison of Athens and Sparta.) 1200 – 0 BC Textbook: pages 106-107 Greece itself was made up of separate city-states, which were constantly at war. Define city-state City-state definition: Political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Two major city-states: Athens and Sparta. Create a chart on your own paper like the one which follows.


Athens Government: Limited democracy (only male citizens could participate), Council of 500 which made the laws, voting Assembly. Soldiers: Citizen soldiers – only during wartime Slaves: No political rights or freedoms. Owned by individuals Women: Cared for the home, limited political rights. Education: Upper class boys only. Military training and preparation for government involvement. Knowledge was important for a democratic government. Sparta Government: Two kings (military generals) and a council of elders. Citizens were male, native born, over 30. Soldiers: Military society, all males prepared to be soldiers from birth. Soldiers from age 7 – 30. Slaves Owned by the State Women: Prepared physically for fighting, right to inherit property, must obey men. Education: Boys only. Military based training from age 7. Taught to fight. Prohibition against trade, travel and mixing with other city-states.

Persian Wars 490 – 479 BC: 

Persian Wars 490 – 479 BC The Greek city-states did not unite until faced with a common enemy: Persia

Delian League: 

Delian League By 479 BC, the Greeks had defeated the Persians on land in Asia Minor and stopped their advance. Athens emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greece. To continue the struggle against Persia, it organized the Delian League, an alliance with the other Greek city states. Athens dominated the Delian League and used its wealth to create an Athenian empire.

Athens – The City Pericles Built: 

Athens – The City Pericles Built Direct Democracy – Citizen assembly voted directly on laws Huge construction projects – Acropolis and Parthenon rebuilt Emphasis on arts, architecture, philosophy and medicine

Athens – Conquered by Sparta: 

Athens – Conquered by Sparta In 404 BC, Sparta attacked and conquered the fading Athenian empire in what came to be know as the Peloponnesian War. For the next century, fighting continued to dominate the Greek city-states. By 359 BC, the Macedonians from the north, under the leadership of Philip II invaded and conquered all of Greece.

The World of Alexander the Great (Text: page 120) 359 BC – 323 BC: 

The World of Alexander the Great (Text: page 120) 359 BC – 323 BC Philip of Macedonia Philip conquered Greece in 359 BC His next conquest was to be the Persian empire. The Macedonian army was the most superbly trained in the world. It made use of the phalanx configuration. Philip was assassinated before he could attack and conquer Persia. His son, Alexander (20)– took the throne.


Over the course of the next eleven years, Alexander proceeded to conquer the entire Persian empire. When Xerxes surrendered, Alexander took over all of his realm and his possessions. Alexander even married Xerxes daughter! Write a short paragraph in which you compare and contrast the extent of Alexander’s Empire as opposed to the Persian Empire Alexander

The Legacy of Alexander: 

Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his empire began to divide and dissolve. However, Alexander left behind a legacy of Greek thought, language and custom that survives in part today. The Legacy of Alexander Local cultures assimilated Greek ideas and language. They became Hellenic – or “Greek like” The Hellenistic Age is the age of world wide Greek culture after Alexander. Left behind the idea that all people are morally equal. Aided in the spread of Christianity. Encouraged the work of scholars. Built libraries all over the empire – especially at Alexandria, Egypt. Emphasized mathematics, medicine, science and philosophy.

The Roman World: 

The Roman World The earliest of the Roman civilizations were the Etruscans. (Textbook to page 129.) With the fall of Hellenic influence, the Etruscans conquered all of the Italian peninsula. Their competition for control of the Mediterranean Sea were the Carthaginians in Africa. After three wars with the Carthaginians – called the Punic wars – the Romans emerged as the supreme rulers of the Mediterranean area.

The REAL Hannibal Textbook , page 134.: 

The REAL Hannibal Textbook , page 134. In 218 BC the Carthaginian general Hannibal led his army, including dozens of war elephants, from Spain across the Pyrenees, through Gaul to Rome. Hannibal surprised the Romans and began 15 years of fighting. In the end, the Romans attacked Carthage and ended Hannibal’s attacks against Rome. Rome now ruled the Mediterranean.

The REAL Hannibal Textbook , page 134.: 

The REAL Hannibal Textbook , page 134. “The Carthaginians fought for their own preservation and the sovereignty of Africa. The Romans for supremacy and world domination.” ( a Greek witness to the destruction of Carthage.) The Romans were committed to a policy of imperialism. Define “imperialism” Domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region.

The Republic of Rome: 

The Republic of Rome Define Republic Republic: System of government in which officials are elected by the people. Senate: Most powerful governing body. 300 members – all patricians. Made the laws. First laws codified into the Twelve Tables Two Consuls – elected by Senate. Ran the government and the army. Tribunes – elected by the people (plebeians) Judges – Oversaw courts cases Wide spread use of slave labor from conquered territories Slave labor forced small farmers out of business. Led to mass unemployment and poverty. Mob riots and corruption in the government. Attempts at reform failed. Civil wars began. Julius Caesar emerged as dictator of Rome

Julius Caesar and the Empire of Rome: 

Julius Caesar and the Empire of Rome Caesar conquers Gaul What is Gaul called today? France First Triumvirate: Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus Caesar defeats Pompey in a civil war after Crassus dies in battle. Caesar pursues Pompey to Egypt where he meets Cleopatra and has a child with her. Caesar becomes dictator of Rome Caesar is assassinated by the Senate he tried to displace. Rome plunges into Civil War. Marc Anthony and Cleopatra are defeated by Caesar Augustus. Caesar Augustus ends all hope for a further Roman empire.

Julius Caesar: 

Julius Caesar On your own paper, create a chart like the one below. Then read the primary sources you are given about Julius Caesar and write down excerpts that best fit the categories. Below the chart, write a short paragraph in which you defend ONE of the following statements: Julius Caesar was a man of the people. Julius Caesar was a vicious dictator.

Rome at its Height 60 – 400 AD: 

Rome at its Height 60 – 400 AD On your own paper, describe the extent of the Roman Empire at its height. Be sure to name oceans, rivers and seas in your description. Use page 127 in your textbook for further details.

Pax Romana: 

Pax Romana Pax Romana, Latin for "the Roman peace", is the long period of peace experienced by states within the Roman Empire. The term stems from the fact that Roman rule and its legal system pacified regions which had suffered from the quarrels between rival leaders, sometimes forcefully. During this time Rome still fought a number of wars against neighboring states and tribes, most notably the Germanic tribes and Parthia. It was an era of relative tranquility, in which Rome endured neither major civil wars, such as the perpetual bloodshed of the first century BC, nor serious invasions. Characterized by rule by emperors and a lack of democracy. Strong military presence.

The Roman Achievement: 

The Roman Achievement Turn in your textbook to page 137. Roman Roads - As early as the 4th century BC, a good road system was recognized as vital for military deployment, communication and increasing commerce. By having an option to traveling around the peninsula or along the coast line of Italy, travelers and merchants could avoid some threat of storms, pirates and navigational problems. Well trained and extensive military. Because the military presence on Roman roads was so extensive, travel and trade were safer and much faster. Roman rule of law - An accused person is innocent until proven guilty.

The Roman Achievement: 

The Roman Achievement

The Roman Achievement: 

The Roman Achievement Aqueducts – Roman water systems often carried water to cities from mountain streams hundreds of miles away. Only a highly organized civilization with advanced technology could create such a system.

The Roman Achievement: 

The Roman Achievement Highly sophisticated public buildings and baths.

The Rise of Christianity Textbook - page 144: 

The Rise of Christianity Textbook - page 144 Despite Roman persecution of the early Church, the Pax Romana and the extensive Roman transportation system allowed Christianity to spread throughout the Roman empire. The huge slave population made Christianity attractive to a wide section of the population. By 312 AD, Emperor Constantine had decreed Christianity the official religion of Rome. Jesus healing the blind man.

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