Reading B Unit 3

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新世纪研究生英语B 上海外语教育出版社: 

新世纪研究生英语B 上海外语教育出版社 Unit 1 Pp 01-21 Unit 2 Pp 22-48 Unit 3 Pp 49-68 Unit 4 Pp 69-90 Unit 5 Pp 91-113 Unit 7 Pp 136-161 Unit 9 Pp 182-207 Unit 10 Pp 208-230 Unit 12 Pp 231-290 Unit 13 Pp 291-311

To Contact: 

To Contact Secretary: Ms. Zhang Office: Room 211, School of Foreign Languages Tel.: (020)84113601 Email: [email protected] Website: http://home.zsu.edu.cn/ep

Unit Three Computer Violence: 

Unit Three Computer Violence 1. Do you like playing video or computer games? Why or why not? 2.  Describe a video game you have ever played. 3. Try to add as many expressions as possible to the sentence below: Computer games are___________. entertaining, enlightening, addictive, time-wasting

Slide4: 

Computers and the Internet are making ever-closer access to to people’s daily life, their work and entertainment. Now, discuss with your partner, compare the advantages and disadvantages of computers and the Internet and draw your conclusion. Have you ever been a computer hacker or have your computer ever been hacked and broken down? How do you comment on the behavior of a hacker. Are they all nuts?

Slide5: 

Electronic games in various forms have become one of the most popular entertainments in recent years. This article, extracted from the Washington Post, reports on and analyses the status quo of the games industry and its influence on younger players, especially teenagers. The article begins with the scene in a sitting room which is typical of many families nowadays. The violent games played by children cause great concern from parents. Then the author quotes from various sources (such as, game developers, parents, watchdog groups, government agencies and other organizations concerned) about the consequences of games with violent and sexual theme on children’s psychology and behavior.

Slide6: 

On the one hand, game developers, equipped with new and advanced technology, could design true-to-life games which enjoy promising market (Para.7, 9). On the other hand, such real-to-life games reach the extreme of violence which would impact younger players in potentially harmful ways (Para.6, 8, 24, 25). Not only parents, but also part of the game developers and government agencies have noticed such a trend and taken measures to limit children’s access to violent and sexual games, including, among others, practicing the rating system (Para.14) and developing game reporting cards (Para.16). However, despite the supervision, children could still have access to games of restricted rating in an easy way (Para.18, 19, 20), which remains to be a problem to be solved.

Slide7: 

As a piece of newspaper writing, this article contains many direct and indirect quotes from various sources. Such a way of writing is typical of the media genre. It indicates the objectiveness in reporting the public’s opinions. Nevertheless, the wordings describing violent games played by children both denote and connote the cruelty, cold-bloodiness and savageness of killing (Para.5, 11, 12). Such detailed and depictive wordings are not up to the conventional practice of news reporting writing, but they are evaluative and reveal the author’s position with regard to the violent games. It also reveals the tone of this writing: objective and concerned.

They were playing a video game they had rented called Goldeneye 007, one of the top-selling titles of 1998. : 

They were playing a video game they had rented called Goldeneye 007, one of the top-selling titles of 1998. Goldeneye 007: 17th of the James Bond movies and video games. Synopsis: Armed with his license to kill, James Bond races to Russia in search of the stolen access codes for "GoldenEye," an awesome space weapon that can fire a devastating electromagnetic pulse toward the Earth. However, Bond is up against an enemy who anticipates his every move: Alec Trevelyan, a.k.a. Agent 006, a mastermind motivated by years of simmering hatred. As Bond squares off against his former compatriot, he also battles Trevelyan's stunning ally, Xenia Onatopp, an assassin who uses pleasure as her ultimate weapon. When the horrifying extent of Trevelyan's plans is revealed, Bond must call upon his sharp wits and killer instincts in a deadly confrontation. From a destructive tank chase through the streets of St. Petersburg to the treacherous Cuban jungle, Bond finds himself playing a cat-and-mouse game to the finish.

GoldenEye 007 (Video Game): 

GoldenEye 007 (Video Game) GoldenEye definitely sets the standards of first-person shooters. Anything below it is not even worth buying. GoldenEye is based on James Bond 17th adventure. In the game you are Bond…James Bond, and must stop the world being destroyed by a Complicated Russian Space Weapon called Goldeneye (dah!), a satellite able to create an explosion in the atmosphere, sending an EMP (电磁脉冲) throughout a thirty mile radius.

Slide10: 

Goldeneye (video game) is a first-person shooter. First of all you have an amazing array of gadgets and weapons, from a Hunting knife, your trusty PPK, AR 33 machine gun to the Moonraker laser! Gadgets also include laser watch, remote mine’s to Door decoders! No doubt you have a wide selection to choose from. The A.I in this game is incredible! When you use a loud weapon, they coming running to you, but if you use a silenced weapon they continue on doing whatever they were doing, swatting flies, scratching their butts….yes! Scratching their butts!. Also another great thing is they mostly all die differently.

Standing behind the boys, Wise saw that the video, rated T (Teen) for ages 13 and older, depicted the shooter’s point of view, with his large gun jutting into the bottom of the TV frame. (para.2) : 

Standing behind the boys, Wise saw that the video, rated T (Teen) for ages 13 and older, depicted the shooter’s point of view, with his large gun jutting into the bottom of the TV frame. (para.2) While standing behind the two boys, Wise saw that it was a game rated as suitable for teenagers. On the screen, the scene was from a shooter’s point of view and the shooter’ s large gun was connected with the TV set through a wire. jut: to extend outward or upward beyond the limits of the main body; to project e.g. The balcony juts out over the garden. 阳台突出在花园上方。

Slide12: 

point-blank (para.2): 1. so close to a target that a weapon may be aimed directly at it 短射程的to shoot at point blank range 2. Straightforward; blunt 直截了当的;坦白的 a point-blank refusal maniacal (para.2): crazy about or violently dangerous e.g. maniacal killer / maniacal collector   taunt (para.2): to speak offensively to someone in order to upset or annoy the person奚落 The boy was deeply hurt after being taunted by some classmates.

Slide13: 

mayhem: serious crime / a situation with no order and out of control e.g. The kids began to create mayhem in the garden. / The terrorism attack on the USA created an incredible mayhem in Manhattan.   pervasive (para.5): having the quality or tendency to pervade; present or felt through a place or thing e.g. The influence of Freud is pervasive in her work. / the pervasive idea of individualism

Slide14: 

…kids are acting out realistic violent experiences on their TV and computer screens (para.5) …kids are trying to play the role of violent actions while playing games on TV and computers. act out: play or perform (a part), esp in action or behavior e.g. The children actually acted out what they saw in that horror movie. sever (para.5): to cut off (a part) from a whole; to break or separate, esp by cutting

Slide15: 

Interactive video games introduce kids to a fantasy world that features amazingly lifelike characters, detailed images of brutality, and an audio mix of heart-pounding music, macabre sound effects and authentic voices. (para.7) Interactive video games bring kids into a fantastic visual world of entertainments. In that world, the characters are almost as true as those in real life. The images of the games are full of brutal details, the music is so loud that it makes one’s heart pound at an abnormal speed, and the sound tracks of games are creepy and thrilling. macabre: causing shock, disgust and fear because connected with death, esp strange and cruel death e.g. Even the police were horrified at the macabre nature of the killings.

Slide16: 

sensation (para.7): physical or general feeling; something causing excitement or interest e.g. It was a strange sensation to return to school again after so many years. / The film was an overnight sensation./ The discovery was hailed as the scientific sensation of the century.   engaging (para.8): pleasant, attractive and charming e.g. an engaging smile / manner / engaging personality

Slide17: 

“We are moving very close to a real cinematic experience, pushing the boundaries of what a TV set or computer monitor can deliver,” (para.9) The image and sound effects of our games are very close to that of the real films, and, up to now, such effects are of the highest standard for a TV or computer screen to display. the uptick in blood and gore (para.10): the increase of violent scenes in games gore: (mainly in descriptions of fighting) thickened blood from a cut or wound e.g. a film with too much gore

Slide18: 

release (para.10): a new record / video / film / book that has just become available for buying e.g. Her latest release is a song about hopeless love. felony (para.10): serious crime such as murder or armed robbery e.g. Airplane hijacking is considered as felony in many countries. spoof (para.10): humorous imitation; an amusing and ridiculous piece of writing, music, theater, etc that copies the style of an original work e.g. They did a spoof on the Nine O’clock News.

Slide19: 

In that game kids control a character known among players as The Postal Dude who“goes postal” when the bank forecloses on his house. (para.11) In that game kids play a role named as the Postal Dude. This character becomes wildly angry when the bank deprives his right to redeem his mortgaged house. go postal: to become angry e.g. Jim went postal when he heard that his girlfriend had a crush on the new comer. foreclose: (esp of banks) to take back property that was bought with borrowed money because the money was not being paid back as formally agreed; to exclude or rule out 取消赎回权;排除 e.g. In a recession banks tend to foreclose on businesses that are in financial difficulty. / The president said he had not entirely foreclosed the possibility of a military solution.

Slide20: 

Makers of the more violent games are pushing the outer limits of savagery and depravity. (para.12) Makers of the more violent games are trying to design and develop games that contain extremely violent and morally lower themes. depravity: moral corruption or degradation; a corrupt act or behavior e.g. —The judge said that the background to the case was one of violence, depravity, and abuse. sequel (para.12): continuation of earlier act or event e.g. He stared in this film and its three sequels. … racks up points for mowing down pedestrians (para.12): … gets scores by killing people rack up points: score; make as points in game e.g. The winning player racked up far more points than the runner-up.

Slide21: 

Our role is not to dictate taste. (para.15) Our job is not to demand or control audience to enjoy only certain types of games while rejecting other possibilities. Asked about the discrepancy, the ESRB’s Pober says that “every group will have a different mind-set. They’re entitled to their views.” (para.17) When asked about the difference between the ratings by the parents and the ESRB, Pober explained that “different people have different ideas or criterion for rating games. And everyone has the right to hold his own point of view.” discrepancy: (instance of) divergence or disagreement; difference e.g. We notice the discrepancy between her words and deeds. be entitled to: have the right to do something

Slide22: 

astute (para.18): clever and quick to see how to take advantage of a situation; shrewd e.g. His astute handling of this difficult situation saved her from disaster. / Her astute political sense stopped her from exploiting her opponent’s misfortune.  elude (para.18): evade or escape from, as by daring, cleverness, or skills e.g. The suspect had eluded once more from the police. / They moved the experiment to a secret place in order to elude observation.

Slide23: 

enlist the help of (para.20): ask for and obtain the help of e.g. For that project, they successfully enlisted the help of volunteers in the community. cinch (para.20): sth easy to accomplish; a sure thing e.g. Defeating the opponent is a cinch to this team. / That blue racing car is a cinch to win the next race.

Slide24: 

While publishers trumpet about educational games in helping to develop kids’ learning skills, they discount that violent games can have baser influences on behavior and attitudes. (para.21): On the one hand, game publishers promote educational games by claiming that the games help kids develop learning skills. On the other hand, they ignore the fact that violent games can deeply affect kids in terms of behavior and attitudes. discount: to disregard, reject or ignore; to minimize e.g. I decided to discount the risks. / We can discount Liverpool—they have three injured players.

Slide25: 

It’s the same kind of attitude that has allowed the tobacco industry to contend for so long that nicotine is not addictive. (para.22) The attitude adopted by the game industry is the same as that of the tobacco industry. The latter has argued for a long time that nicotine is not addictive to smokers. contend: to state as the truth; to claim e.g. The lawyer contended that her client had never been near the scene of the crime. decry (para.23): to oppose or disapprove strongly; to condemn e.g. The villagers decried the corruption of the town officials.

Slide26: 

Indeed, soldiers trained to kill in combat use the same brutalization and desensitization techniques now used to entertain children. (para.25) As a matter of fact, there are skills of fighting in the games played by children. And these skills are very brutal and insensitive techniques which are used in training soldiers to fight in combat. “And if parents are responsible for caring for their children, then our definition of caring has to keep pace with a changing media world.” (para.26) “And if parents are concerned with taking care of their children, then they have to be clear about the new and changing world of media technologies so that they can provide needed help and protection for their children.”

Slide27: 

Decide whether the following statements are true or false according to the text. 1.Goldeneye 007 was a video game for mature players only. F 2.Video games have become more and more popular during the past decade. T 3. Many video games aim at teaching kids how to commit violent acts. F 4. With current technology, interactive video games can create a virtual reality of almost everything. T 5. All video game producers claim that video games are harmless because they are fantasies rather than reality. F

Slide28: 

6. Action games have been released one after another because they meet with players’ tastes. T 7. Since 1994, games have been classified into five categories in America. T 8. Watchdog agencies have done useful work in helping parents to supervise their children’s video game choices. T 9. If M- or AO-rated games are rented or sold to teenage children, the video shop or retailer will be penalized. F 10. Like violent television programs, violent games increase the potential for aggressive behavior amongst teenage players. T

Slide29: 

II. Vocabulary Study i. 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. B 10. A ii. 1. racked up 2. spoof 3. maniacal 4. push the limit of 5. taunted 6. scorched 7. featured 8. releases 9. sequel 10. astute

III. Translation : 

III. Translation Thanks in part to the growth of wireless networks, the telephone is converging with the personal computer and the television. Soon light-weight phones outfitted with high-resolution screens will be connected to satellites enabling people to talk, send and receive e-mail, or take part in video conferences anytime, anywhere. 在一定程度上由于无线网络的发展,电话正在与个人电脑和电视融合起来。不久以后,配有高分辨率显示屏的轻巧手机便可以与卫星连接,人们可以随时随地通话,收发电子邮件或者参加视像电话会议。

Slide31: 

These phones might also absorb many of the key functions of the desktop computer. Mobile devices are expected to be ideal for some of the new personalized services that are becoming available via the Internet, such as trading stocks, gambling, shopping and buying theater and airline tickets. 这种手机也许还会吸收桌面电脑的许多主要功能。移动通信工具有望成为一种理想的装备,提供经由互联网实现的一些全新个性化服务------ 比如说网上股票交易、博彩、购物及预定戏票和飞机票。

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