KNES 455G Chapter 6 Essentials -audio part 2

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Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Adaptations Aerobic Training Results in Bradycardia Increases in stroke volume are apparent even at rest Therefore for the body to maintain resting Q a lesser HR is required given the larger SV This is in part the reason why persons with high levels of cardiovascular fitness have lower resting HR

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Respiratory Adaptations Ventilation generally does not limit aerobic exercise Is either unaffected or minimally affected via training See some increases in tidal volume an Ve with chronic aerobic exercise training

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Neural Adaptations Get rotation of activation of synergists As well as rotation of the activation of motor units within a muscle Results in more efficient locomotion with lower energy expenditure.

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Muscular Adaptations  increased metabolism of fatty acids  increased glycogen sparing (from FA use)  lactate removal  Type I fiber hypertrophy (though not as much as in bodybuilding)  Conversion of Type II to more oxidative fiber (but not type I)

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Muscular Adaptations  Mitochondria  Myoglobin content  activity of aerobic enzymes (Beta ox, CAC)  numbers of aerobic enzymes

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Bone and Connective Tissue Adaptations Aerobic Training can result in Bone Remodeling (  bone density) Most successful programs involve fairly intense exercise Exercise must be more vigorous than the norm for that person Ex: person who normally walks, brisk walk Ex: person who normally jogs, run Bike exercise generally not effective (no loading) Need to progressively overload May be a limit to the affect possible through Aerobic Ex

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Bone and Connective Tissue Adaptations Aerobic Training can also help maintain cartilage health Ex: knee joint Weight bearing surfaces are thicker than non-weight bearing Complete range of motion through weight bearing exercise seems to be essential to maintaining tissue health.

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Endocrine Adaptation Chronic secretion of cortisol results in muscle sloughing from excess protein degradation Often athletes with the highest volume of aerobic training are the poorest at tests of power such as a vertical jump There does appear to be an increased epinephrine and norepinephrine response to high intensity exercise in trained individuals (may in part explain increased tolerance to high intensity exercise).

Design of Aerobic Training Plans:

Design of Aerobic Training Plans Type of adaptation possible Typically a persons maximum aerobic capacity (VO 2 max) can be increased from 5 to 30% via training Generally achieved in first 6 to 12 months Further increases in performance Increased economy of movement Increased tolerance for higher intensity exercise

Rest:

Rest Interval Increased length  results in more aerobic involvement Increased rest results in more anaerobic involvement Typically in addition to long duration exercise, athletes use longer intervals with shorter rest periods to further aerobic adaptation.

External Influences on the CV response:

External Influences on the CV response Altitude (Acute)  Ve (at rest and ex)  TV  Cardiac Output (mostly  HR)  Tolerance for Exercise

External Influences on the CV response:

External Influences on the CV response Altitude (Chronic)  Formulation of Hemoglobin (5-15%)  Formation of Red Blood Cells (30-50%)  Diffusion capacity of Oxygen  Capillarization May result in increased exercise capacity at Sea Level

External Influences on the CV response:

External Influences on the CV response Hyperoxic Breathing During rest or following exercise May positively affect some aspects of exercise performance However, because people generally maintain near saturation levels of O 2 the potential for benefit here is very limited.

External Influences on the CV response:

External Influences on the CV response Smoking Increased airway resistance due to nicotine-related bronchiole constriction Increase cilia paralysis which limits the removal of debris and increases the work of breathing Both reduce exercise capacity.

External Influences on the CV response:

External Influences on the CV response Blood Doping EPO – increases RBC formation (  VO 2 max) Infusion – greater numbers of RBC Both can increase performance, but results in higher levels of hematocrit which can be potentially deadly in combination with hypohydration.

Limits to Adaptation:

Limits to Adaptation Genetics % Type I fibers And overall genes to result in increase growth factors for capillaries Size of Lungs Size of Heart All will separate the overall potential of one individual from the next with training

Overtraining and Detraining:

Overtraining and Detraining Overtraining Can results in fatigue, stress fractures (weight bearing ex), depression If extended can be difficult to recover from Overreaching Can result in fatigue Detraining Takes time, i.e. missing a training session will not affect overall fitness levels.

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