KNES 455G Chapter 6 Essentials -audio part 1

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Chapter 6: Adaptations to Aerobic Training Programs:

Chapter 6: Adaptations to Aerobic Training Programs KNES 455G

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Responses From rest to exercise (steady state) Cardiovascular output Increases rapidly Then gradually Reaches a plateau Q May increase up to four fold or a bit beyond with maximum exercise From normal rest 5L/min to above 20L/min

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Responses Stroke Volume With exercise more blood is returned to the heart  Venous Return This increases myocardial stretch resulting in a more forceful contraction Frank-Starling Mechanism

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Responses Stroke Volume Also get an increase in ejection fraction. This is the fraction of the end diastolic volume ejected from the left ventricle during systole. Overall, the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for an anticipatory response to exercise whereby the stroke volume is increased prior to the start of exercise.

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Responses Heart Rate Heart rate increases linearly with exercise Heart rate response will ultimately be limited by maximum heart rate Great deal of variation from one person to the next.

Response of HR and Ve to Increasing Exercise Intensity:

Response of HR and Ve to Increasing Exercise Intensity

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Responses Oxygen Uptake 1 MET = 3.5 ml oxygen per kilogram bw per minute Resting metabolism Maximum Oxygen Uptake The greatest amount of oxygen that can be used at the cellular level system wide Fick Equation VO 2 = Q x a-vO 2 diff (VO 2 and Q are per minute) Equation yields absolute VO 2 not relative

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Responses Oxygen Uptake Demand for Oxygen increase with exercise intensity Larger muscle mass exercise results in higher oxygen demand Oxygen consumption will increase linearly during exercise until maximum O 2 consumption is reached This will result in a plateau

Response of Oxygen Consumption to Increasing Exercise Intensity:

Response of Oxygen Consumption to Increasing Exercise Intensity

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Blood Pressure Responses Systolic Blood Pressure Est. of the pressure in the left ventricle during systole Also used to estimate the work of the heart Rate Pressure or Double Produce (Hr x Sys BP) Systolic blood pressure increases during exercise and can go as high as 260 mmHg

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Blood Pressure Responses Diastolic Blood Pressure Pressure against arterial walls when heart is at rest Provides a measure of peripheral resistance Stays at baseline or decreases slightly with exercise Sympathetic  vasoconstriction But overall  in vasodilation in tissues with higher metabolic demand causes a decrease in resistance in those tissues increasing blood flow

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Respiratory Response Increased Minute Ventilation (Ve) Increased Tidal Volume (TV) Ventilatory Equivalents (Ve/VO 2 ) normally maintain a ration of 20 to 25 L of air per liter O 2 during light exercise may increase to above 40 as intensity increases. Crossing the supposed Ventilatory Threshold.

Ventilatory Equivalents:

Ventilatory Equivalents Ventilatory Equivalents (Ve/VO 2 ) Time

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise:

Acute Responses to Aerobic Exercise Gas Diffusion Rest PP returning to the heart 46mmHg Carbon Dioxide 40mmHg Oxygen Intense Exercise PP returning to the heart 90mmHg Carbon Dioxide 3mmHg Oxygen Diffusion capacity of gases is greatly increases in response to intense exercise.

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise:

Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Cardiovascular Adaptations Aerobic Training Results in  maximum cardiovascular output (Q)  stroke volume  resting heart rate and heart rate during sub max exercise  capillarization of skeletal muscle tissue

HR response to Ex after 4 months Training:

HR response to Ex after 4 months Training

Oxygen Consumption response to Ex after 4 months Training:

Oxygen Consumption response to Ex after 4 months Training

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