Ch 16b Arthritis

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Arthritis and Related Disorders Chapter 16: 

Arthritis and Related Disorders Chapter 16 Heidi Carlton


Introduction Today I will discuss the various forms of arthritis, the symptoms and effects, the causes, and how the disease is diagnosed.

Arthritis : 

Arthritis Arthritis is derived from the Greek words arthron meaning joint and itis meaning inflammation. There are more than 100 types of arthritis. Some types of arthritis are caused from inflamation. Some types are caused from viruses, bacteria, injury, or sodium urate crystals.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: 

Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is caused from inflammation. The primary site of inflammation is the synovial membrane. Inflamed synovial tissue may fill the joint cavity and invade articular cartilage and bone. The inflamed synovial tissue may cause erosion of bone and cartilage.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Continued…: 

Rheumatoid Arthritis Continued… Eventually irreversible damage may occur such as total destruction of the joint with fusion of adjacent bony surfaces. In milder forms joints may withstand inflammation for months or years before irreversible damage occurs. For all types of arthritis early detection and treatment will produce the most favorable results.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms & Causes : 

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms & Causes Symptoms Stiffness, pain, redness, warmth, & swelling over the joint. Loss of appetite, fever, & lack of energy. Rheumatoid nodules, psoriasis of the skin & nail bed, dry eye syndrome, & scleritis. Causes Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. For unknown reasons the immune system attacks the individual’s own cells inside the joint.


Diagnosis There is no specific test used to determine rheumatoid arthritis. Tests that help doctors diagnose the disease are erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood tests for RF, blood tests for anemia, and tests on synovial fluid from the joint. X-rays are helpful to watch for changes in bone and cartilage.


Gout Gout is a form of acute arthritis caused by sodium urate crystals in the joint space. An attack may be triggered by stress, alcohol/drugs, or the presence of another illness. Without treatment the disease can cause permanent damage to the joints and sometimes to the kidneys.

Gout: Symptoms & Causes: 

Gout: Symptoms & Causes Symptoms Swelling, redness, heat, pain, & stiffness in joint area. Often occurs in the big toe. Causes Kidneys fail to excrete uric acid properly. Over production of uric acid due to enzyme defects, psoriasis, or myelogenous leukemia. Risk factors are genetics, gender, age, obesity, & eating foods rich in purines.


Diagnosis A physician may draw synovial fluid from the joint to check for monosodium urate crystals. Their absence does not completely rule out the disease. Gout is difficult to diagnose. This is because hyperuricemia may not be present during an attack. The symptoms of gout mimics other diseases.


Osteoarthritis Also known as degenerative joint disease. The most common type of arthritis. Characterized by localized noninflammatory deterioration of articular cartilage.

Osteoarthritis: Symptoms & Causes: 

Osteoarthritis: Symptoms & Causes Symptoms Swelling, stiffness, and pain. Joints ache after physical activity. Stiffness or pain in the neck or lower back which can result in numbness of the legs or arms. Causes Trauma to joints such as repetitive movements over a long time. Acute injury can lead to osteoarthritis years later. Age. Metabolic disorders that can cause cartilage deterioration.


Common places osteoarthritis affects: Lower back, knees, hips, neck, thumbs, and ends of fingers.


Diagnosis No single test can diagnose osteoarthritis. The doctor will review the medical history, ask the patient to describe symptoms, conduct a physical exam, check reflexes, and check the patient’s ability to bend and walk. X-rays may show cartilage or bone damage. Fluid from the joint may be extracted to check for pieces of bone or cartilage.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: 

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis There are many types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Most types affect female children. Some children experience just one or two flare-ups and never have symptoms again, while others experience many remissions and flare-ups. Some children have continual symptoms.

Symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: 

Symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms of the disease are fevers, rashes, fatigue, early morning stiffness that worsens over time, subcutaneous nodules, growth disturbances in bones, joint swelling, uveitis, and swollen lymph nodes. In less than half of all cases internal organs may be involved.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Causes & Diagnosis: 

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Causes & Diagnosis Causes Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder. Doctors do not know what causes the immune system to go awry. Diagnosis No specific test to diagnose the disease. Tests used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis are also used to diagnose juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.


Fibromyalgia A chronic disease that causes musculoskeletal pain, tender points, and fatigue. Occurs mostly in women of childbearing age. Symptoms of the disease are sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, irritable bowel syndrome, and anxiety.

Fibromyalgia: Causes & Diagnosis: 

Fibromyalgia: Causes & Diagnosis Causes The cause is unknown. Several theories exist. Possibly triggered by a virus. Possibly caused by an injury/trauma that affects the CNS. Diagnosis Physicians diagnose the disease based on the patient’s medical history. There must be chronic widespread pain in 11 of 18 tender point sites. Pain must be continual for at least 3 months.

In Conclusion… : 

In Conclusion… Arthritis is an inflammation of the joint area. Some types of arthritis not only affect the joints, but other parts of the body as well (systemic). Rheumatic disease refers to pain and stiffness of joints, muscles, or fibrous tissues. Some types of rheumatic disease do not affect the joints.

Consumer Tips: 

Consumer Tips Early detection and treatment will produce the best results since the disease gets progressively worse over time. There is no cure for arthritis. Leave the diagnosis to the physician. The Arthritis Foundation is a generally reliable source of information.